language belonging to the Austronesian language family, language spoken in Indonesia, language with codes "id" and "ind"
Phrasebooks > Indonesian phrasebook

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language and lingua franca of Indonesia, in addition to East Timor and places with a significant Indonesian diaspora such as Australia and the Netherlands. With over 230 million speakers, there are a lot of people to talk to in Indonesian. Many universities in Australia and Europe offer Indonesian language courses.

Map of where Indonesian is predominantly spoken. Dark blue: as a majority language. Light blue: as a minority language.

Indonesian is closely related to Malay, and speakers of either language can generally understand the other to a large degree. The main differences are in dialect, pronunciation and loan words: Indonesian has been mainly influenced by Dutch and regional languages like Javanese, Sundanese, etc., while Malay has been mainly influenced by English. Both languages have lots of loan words from Sanskrit, Portuguese/Spanish (historically), Chinese (culinary, daily items), Arabic (especially for religious concepts and vocabularies, Islam and Christian), and English (technology, popular culture, etc.).

Indonesian is a relatively young language, generally said to have been born during the Youth Congress on 28 October 1928, but as the only official language in Indonesia since its independence in 1945, for more than 75 years it has produced numerous literature and formed its own character. Every Indonesian student must learn how to write and speak Indonesian, many as their second language. Indonesian society is highly diglossic (bilingual or trilingual), and many people freely switch back and forth from their mother tongue to Indonesian, and sometimes colloquial Jakartan dialects.

Malay speakers beware, as there are multiple words that are spelled and pronounced the same but convey very different meanings. Among the most familiar are Malay budak (child) to Indonesian budak (slave), Malay percuma (free) to Indonesian percuma (useless), Malay butuh (male genitals) to Indonesian butuh (need), Malay bisa (poison) to Indonesian bisa (can, able to), Malay pusing (to turn) to Indonesian pusing (headache) and Malay banci (a census) to Indonesian banci (sissy, transvestite).

Indonesian uses the Latin alphabet system (26 basic letters and nothing else) and Arabic numerals (0-9). Indonesian people are used to typing with the QWERTY keyboard.


With over 230 million inhabitants dispersed in their local communities, the Indonesian language generally does not serve as a mother tongue, as most of its speakers' first languages are local to their region, such as Javanese, Sundanese, Maduerese, Minang, Acehnese, Balinese, Betawi, Palembang and other large ethnic groups on the west of Indonesia, to the many small ethnic groups of Sulawesi, Maluku, and Papua on the east of Indonesia. Its purpose is to be a language of unification between all the peoples of Indonesia, declared so since the Youth Congress on October 28, 1928.

Indonesian originates from the Malay language usually spoken in central-northeastern Sumatra, which was made famous by the Srivijaya Empire (7th-14th centuries), and then as a working language for trading ("pasar Malay", used in markets alongside the ports). Due to its Malay origin, Indonesian shares a majority of its vocabulary with Malay, but when present-day Malaysia and Indonesia were colonized by different European powers, the trajectories of the two languages started to diverge. After Indonesian, Malaysian and Bruneian independence, the Language Councils of the three countries (Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia or MABBIM) tried to standardized their languages, resulting in several changes in the spelling of Dutch-influenced Indonesian to match the English-influenced Standard Malay, called Ejaan yang Disempurnakan (Perfected Spelling) of 1972, for example Dutch bigraphs "oe", "dj", "tj", "j" became Indonesian letters "u", "j", "c", and "y". You can still see some of the old spellings in old place names, building names, or even people's names.

Loan words from Dutch/English are absorbed differently in standard Indonesian and standard Malay, where Indonesian mostly opt for transliteration or spelling the words with Indonesian pronounciations, and Malay mostly opt on equivalent words or phonetic transliteration, for example "televisi, polisi, universitas, gubernur, telepon, pulpen" (Indonesian) - "televisyen, polis, universiti, gabenor, telefon, pen founten" (Malaysian) - "televisie, politie, universiteit, gouverneur, telefoon, vulpen" (Dutch) - "television, police, university, governor, telephone, fountain pen" (English). The letters "f" and "v" in Indonesian language and regional languages (such as in the Western part of Java) are sometimes substituted with "p", for example "telepon, pulpen, paham, napas, propinsi, Pebruari, Nopember, aktip" (the first four are considered correct, loaned from telefoon, vulpen in Dutch, and faham, nafas in Arabic, while the last four are incorrect, in English: province, February, November, active).

There is also some variation between local dialects of Indonesian, mostly due to the combination of Indonesian with local mother tongues (regional languages). These local words are mostly used as a slang language (informal conversations), but the Jakartan dialect (influenced by Betawi language) is heavily used on national mass media and thus spoken by children and teenagers consuming those contents. But that being said, all Indonesians can easily switch to the standard language, especially when talking with a foreigner. In written text, school, university, formal emails, speech, conversation between a young person and an old person, conversations between new acquaintances (especially from different ethnicities) standard Indonesian is expected, while in texting, conversation between friends, and other informal context, casual Indonesian is expected.

Pronunciation guideEdit

Indonesian is very easy to pronounce: it has one of the most phonetic writing systems in the world, the most faithful to IPA, among major languages that uses Latin alphabet, with only a small number of simple consonants and relatively few vowel sounds. One peculiarity of the spelling is the lack of a separate sign to denote the schwa. It is written as an 'e', which can sometimes be confusing.

Sound values of letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet in IPA and various Latin-script languages
Latin alphabets a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
IPA Phonetic a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Indonesian a b d e, ə f g h i k l m n o p q~k r s t u v w ks j z
Spanish a b k, θ~s d e f g, x i x k l m n o p k r s t u b w, b ks, s, x i, j θ~s
Classical Latin a b k d e f g h i, j k l m n o p k r s t u, w ks y z
English eɪ, æ, ɑː b k, s d iː, ɛ f g, d͡ʒ h aɪ, ɪ d͡ʒ k l m n oʊ, ɒ p ɹ s, z t juː, ʌ, ʊ, uː v w ks, z aɪ, iː, ɪ, j z
French a b k, s d ə, ɛ f g, ʒ i ʒ k l m n ɔ, o p k ʁ s t y v w, v ks i, j z

In Indonesia, spelling reforms in 1947 and 1972 have officially eliminated several vestiges of Dutch in the otherwise very phonetic spelling, and the writing system is now nearly identical to Malay. However, the older forms remain in use to some extent (especially in names) and have been noted in parentheses below.

Stress usually falls on the second-to-last syllable, so in two-syllable words the first syllable is stressed.


As Indonesians pronounce the letter “e” in two different ways, this guide will highlight both the regular and accented version in the phonetics.

vowel English equiv. vowel English equiv. vowel English equiv.
a art (IPA: a) e vowel (IPA: ə) é say (IPA: e)
i see (IPA: i) o more (IPA: o) u (oe) pool (IPA: u)


Consonants that use the old spelling style are written in parentheses:

like in bed (IPA: b)
like bed, only in Sanskrit borrowings
c (ch, tj)
like check (IPA: t͡ʃ)
like in dog (IPA: d)
like dog, only in Sanskrit borrowings
like phone (IPA: f)
like g (IPA: ɡ)
like help (IPA: h)
j (dj)
like job (IPA: d͡ʒ)
like keep (IPA: k); at ends of words, a glottal stop like in the middle of uh-oh (IPA: ʔ)
kh (ch)
like Scottish loch or Chanukkah (IPA: x)
like love (IPA: l)
like mother (IPA: m)
like nice (IPA: n)
like sing (IPA: ŋ) (no hard 'g' sound)
like finger (IPA: ŋɡ) ('ng' plus a hard 'g')
like canyon or Spanish ñ (IPA: ɲ)
like pig (IPA: p)
similar to the 'k' or 'kh' sound (almost always with "u". Only in Arabic borrowings)
like Spanish perro (IPA: r) (trilled/rolled r)
like sick (IPA: s)
sy (sj)
like sheep (IPA: ʃ)
like top (IPA: t)
the same as 'f'
like weight (IPA: w)
like kicks (IPA: ks)
y (j)
like yes (IPA: j)
like haze (IPA: z)

Common diphthongsEdit

like eye (IPA: ai̯)
like cow (IPA: au̯)
like boy (IPA: oi̯)

NOTE: when two vowels are beside each other, and it's not one of the above diphthongs, they must be pronounced as separate syllables


In the pseudo-pronunciations below, glottal stops are shown as apostrophes, usually at the ends of words. Unaspirated consonants (always the letters T or P, usually at the ends of words) are shown in parentheses.


Pronouns Singular Plural
1st Person Saya (SAH-yah) (formal)
aku (AH-koo) (informal)
Kita (KEE-tah) (when you include the person
you're talking to within a group)
Kami (KAH-mee) (when you don't include
the person you're talking to)
2nd Person Kamu (KAH-moo) (informal)
Anda (AHN-dah) (formal)
Kalian (KAH-lee-ahn)
3rd Person
Dia (DEE-ah) (informal) he/she

Beliau (BUH-lih-yow) (formal) he/she
Ia (EE-ah) it

Mereka (muh-REH-kah)

Indonesian sentences structure is subject-verb-object. It more or less resembles English, but with more rules to follow, it actually looks more like Spanish!

In general, there are no grammatical gender and verb conjugation for person, number (plurality) or tense, all of which are expressed with adverbs or time indicators.

Saya makan nasi.
"I eat rice."

Unlike in English, however, adjectives are placed after the noun, not before. In this case, the word "goreng" means "fried":

Saya makan nasi goreng.
"I eat fried rice."

Just like adjectives, possessive pronouns are also placed after the noun, with the same form as normal pronouns:

Saya makan nasi goreng ibu saya.
"I am eating my mother's fried rice."

If you want to use an adverb, place it after the adjective (if any) or the verb. Use "dengan" (DUHNG-an) followed by the adjective:

Saya makan nasi (goreng) dengan gembira.
I happily eat (fried) rice. (lit: I eat (fried) rice with joy)

Negation marker ("tidak") (TEE-da') is placed before the verb or adjectives, while ("bukan") (BOO-kahn) is placed before noun or noun phrases:

Saya tidak makan nasi goreng.
"I don't eat fried rice."
Nasi goreng itu tidak enak.
"That fried rice is not delicious."
Itu bukan nasi goreng.
"That's not (a) fried rice."

Indonesian doesn't have grammatical tense. To indicate this aspect, some time markers are used: "sedang" (present continuous), "sudah" (simple past / past participle), "akan" (simple future / future participle)

To indicate something is being done, sedang (suh-DANG) is placed before the verb; in case of a negative sentence, use "tidak sedang":

Saya (tidak) sedang makan nasi goreng.
"I am (not) eating fried rice."

To indicate something is finished, ("sudah") (SOO-dah) is placed before the verb; in case of a negative sentence, change it to "belum" (buh-LUM):

Saya sudah (/belum) makan nasi goreng.
"I have eaten (/haven't ate) fried rice."

To indicate something is going to happen, ("akan") (AH-kahn) is placed before the verb; in case of a negative sentence, use "tidak akan":

Saya (tidak) akan makan nasi goreng.
"I will (not) eat fried rice."

If you use a place and/or time marker, formally they should be placed after the object. But informally, you can also place the time indicator at the beginning or end of the sentence, or after the subject (almost everywhere). In the following example, setiap hari means "everyday", kemarin means "yesterday", besok means "tomorrow".

Saya makan nasi goreng setiap hari., or Setiap hari saya makan nasi goreng., or Saya setiap hari makan nasi goreng.
"I eat fried rice everyday."
Saya makan nasi goreng kemarin., or Kemarin saya makan nasi goreng., or Saya kemarin makan nasi goreng.
"I ate fried rice yesterday."
Saya (akan) makan nasi goreng besok., or Besok saya (akan) makan nasi goreng., or Saya besok (akan) makan nasi goreng. ("akan" is optional/redundant, because the listener already know that it will happen in the future.)
"I will eat fried rice tomorrow."

The difference of the placement of the time indicator usually for stressing which information of the sentence is the most important.

SETIAP HARI saya makan nasi goreng. - the focus is the "everyday" information
SAYA kemarin makan nasi goreng. - the focus is the subject, "I"
Saya makan nasi goreng besok. - formal sentence, without any particular stressing.

Formally, the place indicator precedes the time marker. But, as shown in the above example, you can also move the time indicator in other parts of the sentence. The place indicator is usually still located at the end of the sentence.

Saya makan nasi goreng di restoran Tionghoa setiap hari.
Saya kemarin makan nasi goreng di restoran Tionghoa.
Besok saya makan nasi goreng di restoran Tionghoa.
"I eat fried rice at (a) Chinese restaurant every day."
Particles like "a"/"an" are almost never used in conversational / daily usage, because everything is regarded as singular unles you reduplicate a word, then it became plural. So the following sentence:
Saya sedang makan nasi goreng di [sebuah] restoran Tionghoa.
"I'm eating fried rice at a Chinese restaurant."
might be correct in a formal translation, but in conversations, even formal conversations, the auxiliary word "sebuah" is deemed to be superfluous.

You can also use a second adjective, but it must be joined by the word yang (lit: which is, that is, who is) after the first adjective. Usually the adjective types country & colour are put first before other adjectives:

Saya makan nasi di sebuah restoran Tionghoa yang kecil di seberang hotel saya setiap hari.
"I eat rice at a small Chinese restaurant in front of my hotel every day."

Question forms follow the simple structure of question interrogative-pronoun-verb-object, or in informal conversation pronoun-verb-object-interrogative. In the following example, kamu means "you" (formal/informal), apa means "what", and di mana means "where":

Apa yang kamu makan? : "What are you eating?
Kamu makan apa? : "What are you eating?
Di mana kamu makan nasi goreng? : "Where are you eating fried rice?"
Kamu makan nasi goreng di mana? : "Where are you eating fried rice?"

Other interrogatives are: "who" siapa, "when" kapan, "why" mengapa/kenapa, "how" bagaimana, "how much" berapa, and sometimes "where" can also translated as "mana", followed by an object, "ke mana", followed by a destination, and "dari mana", followed by a place of origin.

(Di) Mana tempatnya? / Tempatnya (di) mana? (informal): "Where is the place?"
Ke mana kamu pergi? / Kamu pergi ke mana? (informal) : "Where are you going?"
Dari mana kamu? / Kamu dari mana? (informal) : "Wehre are you from?"

Addressing peopleEdit

Using direct terms for "you" is not always considered polite in Indonesia. To call anyone "kamu", unless you know them very well, is rude. Opt for "Anda" or an honorific instead. The words "Bapak" and "Ibu" and others below are some of the few gendered-words in the largely-genderless vocabulary of Indonesian (only around 200 nouns have gender marker).

Frequently/nationwide usedEdit

Anda (AHN-dah)
The neutral formal way to address someone. It does carry a formal tone though, so not suitable to be used among friends, since using the word among acquintances mean you're being humble, or lowering yourself below their status.
Bapak (BAH-pah')/pak (pah')
The default honorific for males of the same age or older than yourself (same as Sir / Mr. in English): Pak Joko (Mr. Joko), either married or unmarried.
Ibu (IH-boo)/bu (boo)
The default honorific for females of roughly the same age or older than yourself (same as Ma'am / Mrs. in English): Ibu Susi (Mrs. Susi)
Note on the word "ibu": generally it has a secondary meaning of "a married woman", and unmarried women might reject being called "ibu" (although some others umarried women do not mind being called "ibu"), and prefer other terms instead. If she didn't specify any, you can safely use "Anda". If you're unsure whether she's married or not, it's okay to use "ibu" and get corrected, or you can start immediately with "Anda". There's no equivalent for the word "Ms." for unmarried women in Indonesian language. Use regional variant below is also advised.
Kakak (KAH-kah')
Informal form for older young males and females or gender neutral form, it literally means older sibling. Has been rising in prominence, especially among new acquintances, from any service provider people, marketers, etc. irregardless of your age and their age. Nowadays it's not uncommon to hear the term to be used from someone slightly older to a younger person, or a boy/girl to a young adult person (customer, service receiver, etc.) in formal context, in an effort to reduce the usage of regional variant ("mas", "mbak", etc.) in a more ethnically mixed societies in Indonesia, where race and terms of address cannot be assumed anymore.
Nak (Nah') or Adik (AH-dih'') : For children or younger person (if you're already a married person, or of advanced age)

If you're talking with someone with higher social position, or of advanced age (older people in general), replace kamu with Anda (formal, honorific, always written with capital "A"), or bapak ("sir"), or ibu ("ma'am"); and if you're talking with a close friend, you may replace kamu with kau (nonformal). So kamu is a neutral word between these choices, if you're unsure which one to use. In the following example, mau means "want".

Kamu mau makan apa? : "What do you want to eat? (semi-formal/informal)
Anda mau makan apa? : "What do you want to eat? (formal, rarely used in conversation)
Bapak mau makan apa? : "What do you want to eat, sir? (formal, to an older male)
Anda mau makan apa, pak? : "What do you want to eat, sir? (formal, to an older male)
Ibu mau makan apa? : "What do you want to eat, mam? (formal, to an older female)
Anda mau makan apa, bu? : "What do you want to eat, mam? (formal, to an older female)
Kau mau makan apa? : "What'cha wanna eat? (informal)

Regional variantsEdit

Different forms of some of these words are used across the archipelago. The ones below refer to someone who is roughly your own age or slightly older. Broadly analagous to the Indonesian kakak, they are informal so, if in doubt, revert to bapak and ibu. You will hear them being used to address serving staff in restaurants and shops.

in Javanese-speaking communities
mas (mahss) for a male and mbak (uhm-BAH') for a female. Not to be confused with mbah (uhm-BAH) which means grandfather or grandmother.
in Sundanese-speaking communities (mostly West Java)
akang (AH-kahng) for males, and teteh (TEH-teh) for females.
in Bali
bli (blee) for males and mbok (uhm-BO') for females.
among Minang speakers (originally from West Sumatra)
abang (AH-bahng) or uda (OO-dah) for males and uni (OO-nee) for females.
in Indonesian Chinese communities
koko (KOH-koh) or koh (KOH) and cici (CHEE-chee) or cik (Cheek), for male and female, respectively.
For other cultures/ethnicities, you may ask them what do they prefer to be called.

For informal / regional variants of "bapak" and "ibu", you may hear Dutch terms being used (which you also may use): om and tante. They literally mean "uncle" and "aunt" irregardless of blood relatives or a new acquintances. They're more informal than "Bapak" and "Ibu", and can also being used to replace "Mr." and "Mrs." in close acquintances.

Affixation in IndonesianEdit

Indonesian is a so-called agglutinative language, which means multiple affixes are all attached to a base root. So a word can become very long (e.g. prefix1 + prefix2 + prefix3 + rootword + suffix1 + suffix2 + suffix3). For example there is a base word hasil which means "result" or "success". But it can be extended as far as ketidakberhasilannya, which means his/her failure: "ke"(the state of)-"tidak"(not)-"ber"(-ing)-"hasil"(success)-"an"(the state of, with ke)-"nya"(his/her). These are largely modular; "berhasil" means "to have (good) result", for example.

This language feature, compounded with the ability to join noun phrase together, could result in a 28-letters word such as mempertanggungjawabkannyalah (mem- + per- + tanggung jawab + -kan + -nya + -lah), where "tanggung jawab" means responsibility, and mempertanggungjawabkannyalah have the sense of "you have to be responsible for it, lah".

There are more than 70 possible combination (permuation) of prefixes and affixes in Indonesian.


Prefix attack

Having trouble finding a word in a dictionary? Indonesian (print) dictionaries' headwords only list the root word of verbs, and any other verbs with affixes have to be stemmed first. This is one of the major hurdles for people learning Indonesian. Therefore a good online dictionary or digital dictionary usually will help you stem the verbs. Otherwise, try dropping the extra affixes (any combination of prefixes and suffixes below) down to 2 syllables to find the root word (the head word in a dictionary).

Prefixes: be-, ber-, di-, ke-, me-, mem-, men-, meng-, per-, se-, ter-

Suffixes: -an, -i, -kan, -lah, -nya

Active voice

Formal Indonesian verbs are using prefixes me-, mem-, or meng- to indicate an active verb, and/or suffix -kan/-i to indicate an active command. The root word could be either a noun or a verb. If the root word is already a verb, many times they have the same meaning with / without prefixes.

1. Saya makan nasi goreng is equal to Saya memakan nasi goreng because "makan" is already an active verb. To find the root word of "memakan", if you start by stemming the "suffix" -kan, you'll end up with a non-word "mema"; this is called a false suffix. Since you can't find head word "mema", you (should've started with) stem the prefix me-. Also, suffix -i is never used for this root word.
In the following sentences, beli/membeli means "to buy", while membelikan means "to buy (for someone)"
2. Saya beli nasi goreng is equal to Saya membeli nasi goreng is equal to Saya (mem)belikan nasi goreng
"I buy (a) fried rice".
In the following sentences, bumbu means "spices" (noun), membumbui means "to put spices (on something)"
3. Saya membumbui nasi goreng saya. In this sentence, bumbu have to use me- and -i to change it from a noun to a verb.
"I'm adding spice to my fried rice".
4. Bumbui nasi goreng saya!, meanwhile, without a prefix, would make the sentence a command / imperative transitive (need a direct object)
"Add (some) spice to my fried rice!"
In general, the difference between "-i" and "-kan" is somewhat thin. But as a rule of thumb, root words ending with "-i" cannot get -i suffix, (so "beli" cannot become "membelii"), while root words ending with "-kan" most of the time don't get -kan suffix, (so "makan" -> "memakankan", while possible, are very rarely used.); they tend to be tongue-twisting.

But, in the following sentences, you will see some root word can't be used in a sentence as-is, even though they are also active verbs. "Buat" (BOO-aht) means "to make", or in this case "to cook".

5. Saya membuat nasi goreng, or Saya buatkan nasi goreng
"I make (=cook) fried rice", or "I'll make (you) (a) fried rice"
6. Buatkan saya nasi goreng!, suffix -kan here is an imperative transitive (need a direct object).
"Make me (cook for me) a nasi goreng!"
In those examples, you can't say Saya buat nasi goreng or Buat saya nasi goreng, because "buat" also has another meaning, which is "for"
7. Nasi goreng buat saya
"(A) Fried rice for me"

So, the previous example Saya buat nasi goreng or Buat saya nasi goreng have a double meaning "I'm for (=to be presented to) nasi goreng" or "For me, (the) fried rice" (I choose the fried rice), which is why "membuat" / "buatkan" are used to avoid misunderstanding.

While in some sentences, the meaning between the rootword and affixed-words could be different. In the following examples, bangun or bangun tidur means "wake up", while membangun means "to build", and membangunkan means "to wake (somebody) up"

8. Saya bangun tidur, lalu makan
"I woke up, then I ate"
9. Saya membangun rumah makan
"I'm building a restaurant"
10. Saya membangunkan kakak, lalu kami makan
"I wake up my older brother (or sister), then we ate"

In the following examples, tinggal means "to live (somewhere)", while meninggal means "dead", and meninggalkan means "to leave (somebody)"

11. Saya tinggal di rumah makan
"I live in a restaurant"
12. Dia meninggal di rumah makan
"He/she died in a restaurant"
13.Saya meninggalkan rumah makan
"I left (the) restaurant"

But examples like these are rare, and you just need to remember these outliers as you learn Indonesian.

Passive voice
Use the prefix di- to indicate a passive verb. Meanwhile, prefix ter- is used to state you did something accidentally or something that has been done passively.
Other verbs
The prefix ber- though, must be used with an noun or adjective so that it means to have and to become, respectively. Use the suffix (-nya) after a noun if you think the speaker knows the definite object you are referring to, an equivalent to English's "the".
Frequency wise, the most abundant verb forms are "me-"/"di-" (4000+), "me-kan"/"di-kan" (2000+), "ber-" (2000+), "ter-" (1000+), "me-i"/"di-i" (~1000), and the rest only in small amounts.



When plurals are in use, they're often simply a repetition of the singular form, connected by a dash. For example, mobil-mobil (cars) is simply the plural form of "mobil" (car). But, beware that some words are tricky enough to be a plural, while it is actually a singular, such as: laba-laba (spider) vs 'laba' (profit). To avoid confusion, it is better off to use "banyak" (many) instead as a plural form for all objects: banyak laba-laba (spiders).


Indonesian abbreviations

One legacy of the Sukarno-Suharto era still affecting Indonesia is an inordinate fondness for syllabic abbreviations, chosen more for pronounceability than logic or comprehensibility. For example, the National Monument (Monumen Nasional) is universally known as Monas, the Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi capital region is called Jabodetabek and a police captain at the East Kalimantan HQ (Kepala Kepolisian Resor Kalimantan Timur) would be known as Kapolres Kaltim. Even the socialistic exhortation to stand on your own feet (berdiri diatas kaki sendiri) can be snappily rendered as berdikari and the humble fried rice nasi goreng can be chopped up into nasgor!

Others (not specified, in alphabetical order)

Baper (slang)
Bawa perasaan (Put ahead emotions and feelings to everything)
Gordat (slang from West Java region)
Goreng Adat (someone who is angry all the time without reasons)
Jam berapa? (What time is it?)
Kanker (not cancer)
Kantong kering (When you don't have money or have already spent too much)
Loading lambat (Slow thinker)
Titi DJ
Hati-hati Di Jalan (be careful on the way, Titi DJ is an established singer)

Common abbreviations:


Bubur Ayam (Chicken congee/porridge)
Es Jerman
Es Jeruk Manis (Iced orange juice)
Ketupat toge digeprak (Vegetarian dish from Jakarta which consists of compressed rice cakes, tofu, rice vermicelli and bean sprouts drizzled with peanut sauce)
Mie goreng (Fried noodles)
Nasi goreng (Fried rice)

Popular highway/toll road names

Cikampek-Purwakarta-Padalarang (Jakarta-Bandung toll road)
Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi (A highway/toll road link from the south of East Jakarta to Ciawi in West Java)
Jakarta Outer Ring Road (Jakartans usually say this as Jorr instead of saying it per capital letters)

Phrase listEdit

Unless noted as (informal), phrases in this phrasebook use the formal, polite Anda and saya forms for "you" and "I" respectively.


Common signs

no entry
If it says dilarang, don't even think about it doing it
Halo. (HAH-loh)
Hello. (informal)
Hai. (high)
Hello. ("Muslim")
Assalamu 'alaikum (ah-sah-LAH-mu ah-LEH-koom)

note: if someone says this to you, you must reply back Wa'laikum salam (wah-ah-LEH-koom sah-LAHM) regardless of your beliefs, thus returning the wish of peace that was bestowed upon you. Not doing so is a serious breach of etiquette.

How are you?
Apa kabar? (AH-pah KAH-bar?)
Fine, thank you.
Baik, terima kasih. (bah-EE', TREE-mah KAH-see)
What is your name?
Siapa nama? (see-AH-pah NAH-mah?)
My name is ______ .
Nama saya ______ . (NAH-mah SAH-yah _____ .)
Nice to meet you.
Senang bertemu Anda. (suh-NANG buhr-TUH-moo AHN-dah)
Please. (inviting someone to do something)
Silakan. (SIH-lah-kahn)
Please. (asking for help with an action or service)
Tolong (TO-long)
Please. (asking to be given something)
Minta (MIN-tah)
Thank you.
Terima kasih. (tuh-REE-mah KAH-see)
You're welcome.
Sama-sama. (SAH-mah SAH-mah)
Ya (yah)
Tidak (TEE-dah'), Tak (tah')
Excuse me. (getting attention)
Permisi (puhr-MIH-see)
Excuse me. (begging pardon)
Maaf. (mah-AHF)
I'm sorry.
Maafkan saya. (mah-AHF-kahn SAH-yah)
Goodbye (to someone staying behind after you are gone)
Selamat tinggal. (suh-LAH-mah(t) TING-gahl)
Goodbye (to someone leaving you)
Selamat jalan. (suh-LAH-mah(t) JAH-lahn)
Goodbye (informal)
Da-da. (DAH-dah)
See you
Sampai jumpa (SAM-pigh JOOM-pah)

The shorter the better

Colloquial Indonesian shortens commonly used words mercilessly.

tidak → tak → nggak → gak
tidak ada → tiada
not have
sudah → udah → dah
bapak → pak
father; you (polite, for men)
ibu → bu
mother; you (polite, for older women)
aku → ku
I (informal)
kamu → mu
you (informal)

-ku and -mu also act as suffixes: mobilku is short for mobil aku, "my car". Note that shortened words are often less formal, and there for clarity, the standard form may be preferred.

In the case of an object pronoun, you can usually use the word kepada- which means "to be given to..." or punya- which means "to belong to ..." followed by the suffixes -ku means "me", "-mu" is you, "-nya" which refers to him/her, or God (the letter N must be capitalized in this case). Most often you can simply use the usual subject pronoun system though.

Can you speak {language}?
Bisakah Anda berbicara bahasa ____? (BEE-sah-kah AHN-dah buhr-bee-CHAH-rah ba-HAH-sah ____)
Inggris (ING-griss)
Mandarin (mahn-dah-RIN)
Belanda (buh-LAHN-dah)
Arab (AH-rahb)
Jepang (JUH-pahng)
What does ___ mean?
Apa artinya ____? (AH-pah AR-tee-nyah)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
Adakah orang yang bisa bahasa Inggris? (AH-dah-kah OH-rahng yahng BEE-sah ba-HAH-sah ING-griss?)
I can('t) speak Indonesian [well].
Saya (tidak) bisa bicara bahasa Indonesia [dengan baik]. (SAH-yah (TEE-dah') BEE-sah bee-CHA-rah ba-HAH-sah in-doh-NEE-zhah [DUHNG-an BAH-ee'])
Speak more slowly, please
Tolong bicara lebih pelan. (TO-long bee-CHA-rah LUH-bee PUH-lahn)
I want to ask
Saya mau bertanya. (SAH-yah MAH-oo buhr-TAH-nyah)
Tolong! (TO-long)
Tunggu! (TOONG-gooh!)
Look out!
Awas! (ah-WAHSS)
Selamat pagi, Bali!
Good morning (dawn until about 11AM).
Selamat pagi. (suh-LAH-mah(t) PAH-gee)
Good afternoon (from about 11AM until about 3PM).
Selamat siang. (suh-LAH-mah(t) SEE-yahng)
Good afternoon (from about 3PM until dusk).
Selamat sore. (suh-LAH-mah(t) SO-ray)
Good evening/night (between dusk and dawn).
Selamat malam. (suh-LAH-mah(t) MAH-lahm)
Good night (if heading off to bed)
Selamat tidur. (suh-LAH-mah(t) TEE-door)
How do you say ...?
Bagaimana Anda mengatakan ...? (bah-GIGH-mah-nah AHN-dah muh-NGA-tah-kahn ...?)
What is this/that called?
Ini/itu disebut apa? (EE-nee/EE-too dee-suh-BUT AH-pah?)/Ini/itu namanya apa? (EE-nee/EE-too NAH-mah-nyah AH-pah?)
I don't understand.
Saya tidak mengerti. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' muh-NGUHR-tee)
Where is the toilet?
Di mana kamar kecil? (dee MAH-nah KAHM-ar kuh-CHEEL?)
How much (does this cost)?
Berapa harganya? (buh-RAH-pah HAR-gah-nyah)
What time is it (now)?
Jam berapa (sekarang)? (jahm buh-RAH-pah (suh-KAH-rahng)?)


No means no

Indonesian has a number of ways to say "no".

tidak (tak, nggak)
"Not" — used to negate verbs and adjectives.
Ada apel? (Do you) have an apple?
Tidak ada. (No, I) don't have.
Apel baik? (Is it a) good apple?
Tidak baik. (No, it's) not good.
bukan (kan)
"No" — used to negate nouns.
Ini apel? Is this an apple?
Bukan. Ini jeruk. No, it's an orange.
"Not yet" — used when something has not happened (yet).
Sudah makan apel? Have you already eaten the apple?
Belum. No, not yet.
"Don't" — to tell somebody not to do something.
Jangan makan apel! Don't eat the apple!
"Forbidden" — used mostly on signs.
Dilarang makan apel. Eating apple is forbidden.
Warga Negara Asing (WAR-gah nuh-GAH-rah AH-sing) (literally: foreign citizen) or much more common by its acronym, WNA (way-en-ah).

NOTE: the commonly used word bule ("BOO-lay") usually refers to white Caucasians. Some people consider it to be derogatory as it originates from the word for albino (bulai). Many Indonesians are unaware of this origin and use it without intending any insult.

Leave me alone.
Jangan ganggu saya! (JAHNG-ahn GAHNG-goo SAH-yah)
Don't touch me!
Jangan pegang saya! (JAHNG-ahn PUH-gahng SAH-yah)
I'll call the police.
Saya akan panggil polisi. (SAH-yah AH-kahn PAHNG-gihl po-LEE-see)
Polisi! (po-LEE-see)
Stop! Thief!
Berhenti! Maling! (Buhr-HUHN-tee! MAH-lihng!)
Hey! Pickpocket!
Hey! Copet! (heh! CO-peh(t)!)
I need your help.
Saya minta tolong. (SAH-yah MEEN-tah TO-long)
It's an emergency.
Ini darurat. (EE-nee dah-ROO-rah(t))
I'm lost.
Saya tersesat. (SAH-yah tuhr-SUH-sah(t))
I lost my bag.
Saya kehilangan tas saya. (SAH-yah kuh-HEE-lahng-ahn tahss SAH-yah)
I lost my wallet.
Saya kehilangan dompet saya. (SAH-yah kuh-HEE-lahng-ahn DOM-peh(t) SAH-yah)
I'm sick.
Saya sakit. (SAH-yah SAH-ki(t))
I've been injured.
Saya terluka. (SAH-yah tuhr-LOO-kah)
I need a doctor.
Saya perlu dokter. (SAH-yah PUHR-loo DOCK-tuhr)
May I use your phone?
Bolehkah saya pakai telepon Anda? (BO-leh-kah SAH-yah PAH-keh TEH-luh-pon AHN-dah?)

At the doctor'sEdit

Please be careful with my heart

The word hati (HAH-tee) in Indonesian has some very different meanings, thus be careful when using the word for one meaning or another!

  • "heart" in the romantic or abstract sense is hati
  • the "heart" that is the organ that pumps blood around your body is jantung (JAHN-toong)
  • another meaning for "hati" in Indonesian is liver. In a restaurant, the dish sambal goreng hati is liver in a spicy sauce
  • the word for "be careful" is hati-hati
Take care! There are lots of children
Dokter (DOCK-tuhr)
Perawat (PUH-rah-wah(t)) or suster (SUS-tuhr)
Rumah sakit (ROO-mah SAH-ki(t))
Obat (O-bah(t))
Emergency room (ER)/Accident and Emergency (A&E)
Unit Gawat Darurat, normally pronounced UGD (oo-gay-day)
Apotek (AH-po-teh')
I am sick.
Saya sakit (SAH-yah SAH-ki(t))
My _____ hurts
____ saya sakit (" ____ SAH-yah SAH-ki(t)")
nyeri (NYUH-ree)

Body parts

tangan (TAHNG-ahn)
lengan (LUHNG-ahn)
jari (JAH-ree)
pundak (POON-dah') or bahu (BAH-hoo)
kaki (KAH-kee)
jari kaki (JAH-ree KAH-kee)
tungkai (TOONG-kai)
kuku (KOO-koo)
tubuh (TOO-booh) or badan (BAH-dahn)
mata (MAH-tah)
telinga (tuh-LING-ah) or kuping (KOO-ping)
hidung (HEE-dung)
wajah (WAH-jah) or muka (MOO-kah)
kepala (kuh-PAH-lah)
leher (LEH-hehr)
tenggorokan (TUHNG-go-ro'-ahn)
dada (DAH-dah)
perut (PUH-root)
pinggang (PING-gahng)
bokong (BO-kong) or pantat (PAHN-tah(t))
punggung (POONG-goong)
sakit (SAH-ki(t))
gatal (GAH-tahl)
bengkak (BUHNG-kah')
radang (RAH-dahng)
berdarah (buhr-DAH-rah)
Pusing (POO-sing)
Tertelan (tuhr-tuh-LAHN)
demam (DUH-mahm)
batuk (BAH-too')
bersin (BUHR-sin)
diare (dee-ah-REH)
pilek (PEE-luh')
Luka (LOO-kah)
Luka bakar (LOO-kah BAH-kahr)
Patah tulang (PAH-tah TOO-lahng)


Cardinal numbersEdit

Indonesian uses points/full stops for thousands and commas for decimal places, as in continental Europe. Indonesian also uses the short form like English when it comes to thousands, however the counting starts from trillion, as billion already has a term called milyar.

Knowing numbers is useful for instance when shopping on a market
nol (nol). You will often hear the word kosong (KO-song) meaning empty
satu (SAH-too)
dua (DOO-ah)
tiga (TEE-gah)
empat (UHM-pah(t))
lima (LEE-mah)
enam (UH-nahm)
tujuh (TOO-jooh)
delapan (duh-LAH-pahn)
sembilan (suhm-BEE-lahn)
sepuluh (suh-POO-looh)
sebelas (suh-buh-LAHSS)
dua belas (DOO-ah buh-LAHSS)
tiga belas (TEE-gah buh-LAHSS)
dua puluh (DOO-ah POO-loo)
dua puluh satu (DOO-ah POO-loo SAH-too)
tiga puluh (TEE-gah POO-loo)
lima puluh (LEE-mah POO-loo)
delapan puluh (duh-LAH-pan POO-loo)
seratus (suh-RAH-tuss)
seratus dua puluh (suh-RAH-tuss DOO-ah POO-loo)
dua ratus (DOO-ah RAH-tuss)
lima ratus (LEE-mah RAH-tuss)
seribu (suh-REE-boo)
seribu seratus (suh-REE-boo suh-RAH-tuss)
seribu seratus lima puluh dua (suh-REE-boo suh-RAH-tuss LEE-mah POO-loo DOO-ah)
seribu dua ratus (suh-REE-boo DOO-ah RAH-tuss)
seribu lima ratus (suh-REE-boo LEE-mah RAH-tuss)
dua ribu (DOO-ah REE-boo)
dua ribu seratus (DOO-ah REE-boo suh-RAH-tuss)
lima ribu (LEE-mah REE-boo)
sepuluh ribu (suh-RAH-tuss REE-boo)
sebelas ribu ("SUH-buh-lass REE-boo")
dua puluh ribu (DOO-ah POO-loo REE-boo)
A 50,000 rupiah banknote (written in shops as Rp50.000,- or sometimes just 50.)
empat puluh sembilan ribu (UHM-pah(t) POO-loh suhm-BEE-lahn REE-boo)
lima puluh ribu (LEE-mah POO-looh REE-boo)
seratus ribu (suh-RAH-tooss REE-boo)
seratus lima puluh ribu (suh-RAH-tooss LEE-mah POO-looh REE-boo)
seratus lima puluh enam ribu seratus dua puluh lima (suh-RAH-tooss LEE-mah POO-looh UH-nahm REE-boo suh-RAH-tooss DOO-ah POO-looh LEE-mah)
dua ratus lima puluh ribu (DOO-ah RAH-tooss LEE-mah POO-looh REE-boo)
lima ratus ribu (LEE-mah RAH-tooss REE-boo)
satu juta (SAH-too JOO-tah)
satu juta lima ribu (SAH-too JOO-tah LEE-mah REE-boo)
dua setengah juta (DOO-ah STUHNG-ah JOO-tah)
satu milyar (SAH-too MIL-yar)
satu trilyun ("SAH-too TRIL-yoon)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.)
nomor _____ (NO-mor)


The only special word in this case:


Subsequently, use the suffix "ke-" followed by the number:

kedua ("kuh-DOO-ah")
ketiga ("kuh-TEE-gah")

Other wordsEdit

setengah (STUHNG-ah)
seperempat (suh-puhr-UHM-pah(t))
three quarter
tiga perempat (TEE-gah puhr-UHM-pah(t))
persen (PUHR-sehn)
kurang (KOO-rahng)
lebih (LUH-bee)


Jam Gadang clocktower, a major landmark of Bukittinggi
sekarang (suh-KAH-rahng)
nanti (NAHN-tee)
sebelum ("suh-BUH-lum")
sesudah/setelah ("suh-SOO-dah/suh-TUH-lah")

Clock timeEdit

Indonesia uses a 24-hour format. So AM is 00.00 to 11.59, and PM is 12.00-23.59. In practice, however, people are also fine with telling time in 12-hour formats as long as the phase of the day is indicated (see below).

There are two ways to mention time: the word pukul (POOH-kool) uses the 24-hour format and is usually found in broadcasting and in written forms, meanwhile jam (JAM) uses the 12-hour format and is used in conversational settings. Hence 15.00 or 3.00 PM may be said pukul lima belas or jam tiga sore. Generally, both forms are well understood in public.

What time is it now?
Jam berapa sekarang? (JAM buh-RAH-pah suh-KAH-rahng?) or Pukul berapa sekarang? (POOH-kool buh-RAH-pah suh-KAH-rahng?)

NOTE: the word time, when used to tell how many times or multiplications, is kali ("KAH-lee"). The word itself literally means waktu (WAH'-too). The word ‘’jam’’ also means the specific instrument that tells time and to indicate hourly duration. The word ‘’pukul’’ literally means to hit.

(Optional) Dawn (00.01-04.59)
dini hari (DEE-nee HAH-ree)
Morning (00.30-10.59)
pagi (PAH-gee)
Midday and early afternoon (11.00-14.59)
siang ("SEE-ahng")
Late afternoon (15.00-18.29)
sore/petang (so-REH/PUH-tahng)
Evening (18.30-00.29)
malam ("MAH-lahm")

When indicating the time using pukul, simply say the hour and the minute; from 1 to 9 minutes past the hour, the preceding 0 is mentioned to distinguish the hour and the minute. When using the word jam, if the minute hand indicates ten or more past the hour, the word lewat can often be skipped, hence simply saying the hour and the minute.

jam satu pagi (jahm SAH-too PAH-gee)
jam dua pagi (jahm DOO-ah PAH-gee)
jam dua lewat/lebih satu (menit) (jahm DOO-ah LEH-waht/LUH-bee SAH-too MUH-nih(t))
jam dua seperempat/jam dua lewat lima belas(jahm DOO-ah suh-puhr-uhm-PA(T)/jahm DOO-ah LEH-wa(t) LEE-mah buh-LAHSS)
jam dua lewat duapuluh (jahm DOO-ah LEH-wat DOO-ah POO-looh)
jam setengah tiga (jahm STUHNG-ah TEE-gah)
jam tiga kurang dua puluh (jahm TEE-gah KOO-rahng DOO-ah POO-looh) The equivalent of saying "twenty to three"
jam tiga kurang seperempat/jam tiga kurang lima belas (jahm TEE-gah KOO-rahng suh-puhr-UHM-pa(t)/jahm TEE-gah KOO-rahng LEE-mah buh-LAHSS)
12.00 noon
tengah hari (TUHNG-ah HAH-ree)
jam satu siang (jahm SAH-too SEE-ahng)
jam dua siang (jahm DOO-ah SEE-ahng)
24.00 or 00.00 midnight
tengah malam (TUHNG-ah MAH-lahm)


_____ minute(s)
_____ menit (MUH-nih(t))
_____ hour(s)
_____ jam (jahm)
_____ day(s)
_____ hari (HAH-ree)
_____ week(s)
_____ minggu (MING-goo)
_____ month(s)
_____ bulan (BOO-lahn)
_____ year(s)
_____ tahun (TAH-hoon)
in ____
____ lagi (____ LAH-gee)


Beach in Java

A week is from Monday to Sunday, although in calendars, it is Sunday to Saturday.

hari ini (HAH-ree EE-nee)
kemarin (kuh-MAH-rin)
besok (BEH-so')
the day after tomorrow
lusa (LOO-sah)
the day before yesterday
kemarin lusa (kuh-MAH-rin LOOH-sah)
this week
minggu ini (MING-goo EE-nee)
last week
minggu lalu (MING-goo LAH-loo)
next week
minggu depan (MING-goo duh-PAHN)
Minggu (MING-goo)
Senin (suh-NIN)
Selasa (suh-LAH-sah)
Rabu (RAH-boo)
Kamis (KAH-mihss)
Jumat (JOO-mah(t))
Sabtu (SAHB-too)


Januari (jah-noo-AH-ree)
Februari (feh-broo-AH-ree)
Maret (MAH-ruh(t))
April (AH-prihl)
Mei (May)
Juni (JOO-nee)
Juli (JOO-lee)
Agustus (ah-GUS-tuss)
September (sehp-TEHM-buhr)
Oktober (ock-TO-buhr)
Nopember (no-PEHM-buhr)
Desember (deh-SEHM-buhr)


Date formats are always day, followed by month, and year.

August 17th, 1945
17 Agustus 1945 or 17-8-1945

Saying of years before 2000 follow the cardinal order in formal settings and by double digits in informal settings - 1945 would be seribu sembilan ratus empat puluh lima in television or conferences or sembilan belas empat puluh lima in casual conversations.

Years between 2000 and 2099 inclusive are so far always pronounced in cardinal order. The year 2020 is hence always read dua ribu dua puluh.


Colorful clothes made of the traditional fabric batik
hitam (HEE-tahm)
putih (POO-teeh)
abu-abu (AH-boo AH-boo)
merah (MEH-rah)
biru (BEE-roo)
kuning (KOO-ning)
hijau (HEE-jow)
jingga/oranye/oren (JING-gah/o-RAH-nyah/OH-rehn)
ungu (OO-ngoo)
coklat (CHOCK-lah(t))
emas (uh-MAHSS)
perak (PEH-rah')
terang (TUH-rahng) or muda (MOO-dah)
pink (pin') or merah muda (MEH-rah MOO-dah)
gelap (GUH-lahp) or tua (TOO-ah)


Traffic in Jakarta

Bus and trainEdit

Kereta (kuh-REH-tah)
How much is a ticket to _____?
Berapa harga karcis ke _____? (buh-RAH-pah har-GAH kar-CHIHSS kuh _____?)
I want to buy one ticket to _____, please.
Saya ingin membeli satu karcis ke _____. (SAH-yah IHNG-in muhm-BUH-lee SAH-too kar-CHIHSS kuh _____)
Where does this train/bus go?
Kereta/bus ini ke mana? (kuh-REH-tah/beuss IH-nee kuh MAH-nah?)
Where is the train/bus to _____?
Di mana kereta/bus ke _____? (dee MAH-nah kuh-REH-tah/beuss kuh _____?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____?
Apakah kereta/bus ini berhenti di _____? (AH-pah-kah kuh-REH-tah/beuss IH-nee buhr-HUHN-tee dee _____?)
What time does the train/bus for _____ leave?
Jam berapa kereta/bus ke _____ berangkat? (jahm buh-RAH-pah kuh-REH-tah/beuss kuh _____ buh-RAHNG-kah(t)?)
What time does this train/bus arrive in _____?
Jam berapa kereta/bus ini sampai di _____? (jahm buh-RAH-pah kuh-REH-tah/beuss IH-nee SAHM-pigh dee _____?)


How do I get to _____ ?
Bagaimana saya pergi ke _____ ? (Bah-GIGH-mah-nah SAH-yah puhr-GEE kuh ____)
...the train station?
...stasiun kereta api? (STAHS-yoon kuh-REH-tah AH-pee?)
...the bus station?
...terminal bus? (TUHR-mihn-ahl beuss)
...the airport?
...bandara? (bahn-DAH-rah)
...pusat kota? (POO-sah(t) KOH-tah)
...the _____ hotel?
... hotel _____ ? (HO-tehl ____)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British embassy/consulate?
... Kedutaan Besar/Konsulat Amerika/Kanada/Australia/Inggris ? (kuh-DOO-tah-ahn buh-SAR/KON-soo-lah(t) ...)
Where are there a lot of...
Di mana ada banyak... (dee MAH-nah AH-dah BAHN-yah')
...hotel? (HO-tehl)
... inn?
...penginapan (puhng-ihn-AHP-ahn)
...rumah makan/restoran? (ROO-mah MAH-kahn or REHST-tor-ahn)
...bars? (bar)
...sites to see?
...tempat-tempat wisata? (TUHM-pah(t) TUHM-pah(t) wee-SAH-tah?)
Can you show me on the map?
Bisakah Anda tunjukkan di peta? (BEE-sah-kah AHN-dah TOON-jook-kahn dee PEH-tah?)
jalan (JAH-lahn)
kiri (KEEH-ree)
kanan (KAH-nahn)
straight ahead
lurus (LOO-rooss)
towards the _____
menuju _____ (muh-NOO-joo)
past the _____
melewati _____ (muh-LEH-wah-tee)
before the _____
sebelum _____ (suh-BUH-loom)
after the ____
sesudah ____ (suh-SOO-dah)
near the
dekat _____ (DEH-kaht)
in front of
di depan _____ (dih duh-PAHN)
Intersection in Yogyakarta
persimpangan (puhr-sim-PAHNG-ahn)
(over) there
(di) sana ((dih) SAH-nah)
(over) here
(di) sini ((dih) SEE-nee)
utara (oo-TAH-rah)
selatan (suh-LAH-tahn)
timur (TEE-moor)
barat (BAH-raht)
timur laut (TEE-moor LAH-oot)
barat laut (BAH-raht LAH-oot)
tenggara (tuhng-GAH-rah)
barat daya (BAH-raht DAH-yah)

Taxis and ride-sharingEdit

Identify yourself to your driver

When using an app to book a taxi or motorbike ride-share, your driver will usually text or call you to find you, as the maps in the apps may be inaccurate by a couple meters, and they cannot tell exactly where you are. Here are some phrases you might encounter and how to respond:

Posisi di mana? (poh-ZIH-see dee MAH-nah?)
Where are you?
Posisi saya di _____ (poh-ZIH-see SAH-yah dee _____)
I am at/in _____
Pas di depan (pass dee duh-PAHN)
Right in front
Di pinggir jalan (dee PING-geer JAH-lahn)
By the side of the road
Dekat mana? (DEH-ka(t) MAH-nah?)
Where is it near?
Patokannya di mana? (PAH-tohk-kahn-nyah dee MAH-nah?)
Where is the place exactly? (Patokan in English means a criterion or a standard, but in Indonesian, it is used to navigate the drivers to the exact location by pointing out the most prominent objects around you, such as an entrance, signs, or people.)
Dekat _____ (DEH-ka(t) _____ )
It is near _____
Pakai baju warna apa? (PAH-keh BAH-joo WAHR-nah AH-pah?)
What color of clothes are you wearing?
Saya pakai baju warna ____ (SAH-yah PAH-keh BAH-joo WAR-nah ____ )
I am wearing a (name of color) shirt.
Sebelah mana? (SUH-buh-lah MAH-nah?)
Which side are you on?
Sebelah kanan (SUH-buh-lah KAH-nahn)
The right side
Sebelah kiri (SUH-buh-lah KEE-ree)
The left side
Tunggu ya (TOONG-goo yah)
Please wait
Sebentar (suh-buhn-TAR)
Just a second
Taxis are pretty dependable in most cities and large towns
Taksi! (TAHCK-see)
Take me to _____, please.
Tolong antar saya ke _____. (TOH-long AHN-tar SAH-yah kuh ____ )
How much does it cost to get to _____?
Berapa harganya ke _____? (buh-RAH-pah har-GAH-nyah kuh ____ )
Turn left.
Belok kiri. (BEH-lo' KEE-ree)
Turn right.
Belok kanan. (BEH-lo' KAH-nahn)
Turn around. (U-turn)
Putar balik. (POO-tar BAH-lee')
Watch for the _____.
Lihat _____. (LEE-hah(t) ____)
Stop here.
Berhenti di sini. (buhr-HUHN-tee dih SEE-nee)
Wait here.
Tunggu di sini. (TUNG-goo dih SEE-nee)


Evening view to the sea from a "splurge" hotel in Bali
Do you have any rooms available?
Apakah Anda punya kamar kosong? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah POON-nyaa KAH-mar KOH-song?)
How much is a room for one person/two people?
Berapa harga kamar untuk satu/dua orang? (buh-RAH-pah HAR-gah KAHM-ahr OON-too' SAH-too/DOO-ahO-rahng?)
Does the room come with...
Apakah kamarnya ada... (AH-pah-kah KAH-mar-nyah AH-dah)
...seprei? (suh-PREH)
...a bathroom?
...kamar mandi? (KAH-mar MAHN-dee)
...a telephone?
...telepon? (TEH-luh-pon)
...a TV?
...Televisi/TV? (TEH-luh-VI-see/TEE-fee)
...a refrigerator
...kulkas? (KOOL-kahs)
May I see the room first?
Bolehkah saya lihat kamarnya dulu? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah LEE-ah(t) KAH-mar-nyah DOO-loo?)
Do you have anything quieter?
Apakah ada kamar yang lebih tenang? (AH-pah-kah AH-dah KA-mar yahng LUH-bee TUH-nahng)
...besar? (buh-SAR?)
...bersih? (buhr-SIH?)
...murah? (MOO-rah?)
OK, I'll take it.
Baik saya ambil. (bigh', SAH-yah AHM-bihl)
I will stay for _____ night(s).
Saya akan tinggal selama _____ malam. (SAH-yah AH-kahn TING-gahl suh-LAH-mah ____ MAH-lahm.)
Can you suggest another hotel?
Bisakah Anda menyarankan hotel lainnya? (BEE-sah-kah AHN-dah muh-NYA-rahn-kahn HO-tehl LIGH-nyah?)
Do you have a safe?
Apakah Anda punya brankas? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah POO-nyah BRAHN-kahs?)
...lemari berkunci? (luh-MAH-ree buhr-KOON-chee)
Is breakfast/supper included?
Apakah sudah termasuk sarapan/makan malam? (AH-pah-kah SOO-dah tuhr-MAH-sook SAH-rah-pahn/MAH-kahn MAH-lahm)
What time is breakfast/supper?
Jam berapa mulai sarapan/makan malam? (jahm BUH-rah-pah muh-LIGH SAH-rah-pahn/MAH-kahn MAH-lahm?)
Please clean my room.
Tolong bersihkan kamar saya. (TOH-long BUHR-sih-kahn KAH-mahr SAH-yah)
Can you wake me at _____?
Bisakah saya dibangunkan jam _____? (BEE-sah-kah SAH-yah dih-BAHNG-oon-kahn jahm ____)
I want to check out.
Saya mau check out. (SAH-yah MAH-hoo chehck owt)


A full spread of newer Indonesian banknotes
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
Apakah Anda menerima dollar Amerika/Australia/Kanada? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah muh-nuh-REE-mah DO-lar ah-MEH-ree-kah/os-TRAH-lee-ah/KAH-nah-dah)
Do you accept British pounds?
Apakah Anda menerima poundsterling Inggris? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah muh-nuh-REE-mah pon-stuhr-lihng IHNG-grihss)
Do you accept credit cards?
Apakah Anda menerima kartu kredit? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah muh-nuh-REE-mah KAR-too KREH-di(t))
Can you change money for me?
Bisakah Anda tukar uang untuk saya? (BEE-sah-kah AHN-dah TOO-kar OO-ahng OON-tu' SAH-yah)
Where can I get money changed?
Di mana saya bisa tukar uang? (dih MAH-nah SAH-yah BEE-sah TOO-kar OO-ahng)
Can you change a traveler's check for me?
Bisakah Anda tukar cek perjalanan? (BEE-sah-kah AHN-dah TOO-kar chehk puhr-JAH-lah-nahn)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
Di mana saya bisa tukar cek perjalanan? (DIH MAH-nah SAH-yah BEE-sah TOO-kar chehck puhr-JAH-lah-nahn)
What is the exchange rate?
Berapa kursnya? (buh-RAH-pah KEURS-nyah)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
Di mana ada ATM? (dih MAH-nah AH-dah AH-TEH-EHM)


Edible adjectives

asin (AH-sihn)
asam (AH-sahm)
manis (MAH-nihss)
pedas (puh-DAHS)
Hot (spicy)
pahit (PAH-hee(t))
enak (EH-nah')
tawar (TAH-wahr)
dingin (DIHNG-ihn)
sejuk (SUH-ju')
hangat (HAHNG-ah(t))
panas (PAH-nahss)
Hot (temperature)
Finding the tea too sweet? Try teh tawar instead
A table for one person/two people, please.
Tolong beri saya satu meja untuk satu/dua orang. (TOH-long BUH-ree SAH-yah SAH-too MEH-jah OON-too' SAH-too/DOO-ah O-rahng)
Can I look at the menu, please?
Bolehkah saya lihat menunya? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah LEE-ah(t) MEH-noo-nyah)
Is there a house specialty?
Adakah makanan istimewa? (AH-dah-kah MAH-kah-nahn IHS-tee-MEH-wah?)
Is there a local specialty?
Adakah makanan khas daerah ini? (AH-dah-kah MAH-kah-nahn khass dah-EH-rah IH-nee)
I'm a vegetarian.
Saya vegetarian. (SAH-yah VEH-geh-TAH-ree-ahn)
I don't eat pork.
Saya tidak makan babi. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAH-kahn BAH-bee)
I don't eat beef.
Saya tidak makan sapi. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAH-kahn SAH-pee)
I don't eat seafood.
Saya tidak makan hasil laut (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAH-kahn HAH-sihl LAH-oo(t))
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
Bisakah dibuat dengan minyak sedikit saja? (BEE-sah-kah dee-BU-ah(t) DUHNG-ahn MIN-yah' suh-DEE-ki(t) SAH-jah?)
I want _____.
Saya mau pesan _____. (SAH-yah MAH-oo puh-SAHN)
sarapan (pagi) (SAH-rah-pahn (PAH-gee))
makan siang (MAH-kahn SEE-ahng)
makan malam (MAH-kahn MAH-lahm)
camilan (CHAH-mee-lahn)
I want a dish containing _____.
Saya mau makanan yang mengandung _____. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MAH-kah-nahn yahng muhng-AHN-doong)
I'm allergic to ____
Saya alergi akan ____ (SAH-yah AH-luhr-gee AH-kahn ____)
ayam (AH-yahm)

How would you like it to be done?

mentah (MUHN-tah)
segar (SUH-gar)
matang (MAH-tahng)
panggang (PAHNG-gahng)
bakar (BAH-kar)
tumis (TOO-mihss); cah ("CAH") (in Chinese restaurants)
goreng (GO-rehng)
rebus (RUH-booss)
kukus (KOO-kooss)
campur (CHAHM-poor)
daging sapi (DAH-ging SAH-pee)
ikan (EE-kahn)
daging babi (DAH-ging BAH-bee)
daging kambing (DAH-ging KAHM-bing)
udang (OO-dahng)
kepiting (KUH-pit-ing)
cumi (CHOO-mee)
tiram (TEE-rahm)
sosis (SO-siss)
keju (KEH-joo)
telur (tuh-LOOR)
tahu (TAH-hoo)
tempe (TEHM-peh)

Just some of the vegetable bounty of Padang Panjang in West Sumatra
(fresh) vegetables
sayuran (SAH-yoo-rahn)
timun (TEE-mun)
wortel (WOR-tehl)
selada (suh-LAH-dah)
kembang kol (KUHM-bahng kol)
tomat (TOH-mah(t))
jagung (JAH-goong)
water spinach (a common leafy vegetable)
kangkung (KAHNG-koong)
bayam (BAH-yahm)
labu (LAH-boo)
kacang (KAH-chahng)
kentang (KUHN-tahng)
singkong (SING-kong)
purple yam
ubi (OO-bee)
sweet potato
ubi jalar (OO-bee JAH-lar)
bawang bombay (BAH-wahng BOM-bay)
bawang putih (BAH-wahng POO-tee)
bawang merah (BAH-wahng MEH-rah)
jamur (JAH-moor)

An array of tropical fruits sold in Bali
(fresh) fruit
buah (BOO-ah)
apel (AH-pehl)
pisang (PEE-sahng)
jeruk (JUH-roo')
semangka (suh-MAHNG-kah)
anggur (AHNG-goor)
pepaya (puh-PAH-yah)
mangga (MAHNG-gah)
jambu (JAHM-boo)
nanas (NAH-nahss)
kesemek (kuh-SEH-me')
blewah (BLEH-wah)
melon (MEH-lon)
kelapa (kuh-LAH-pah)
belimbing (buh-LIM-beeng)
nangka (NAHNG-kah)
sukun (SOO-kuhn)
rambutan (RAHM-boo-tahn)
manggis (MAHNG-gihss)
sirsak (SEER-sah')
durian/duren (DOO-ree-ahn/DOO-rehn)

Sundanese dishes at a food stall
Roti (ROH-tee)
Roti bakar (ROH-tee BAH-kar)
Mie (mee)
Nasi (NAH-see)
Bubur (BOO-boor)
Beans or nuts
Kacang (KAH-chahng)
Ice cream
Es krim (ess krim)
Kue (KOO-eh)
Sup/soto (soup/SOH-toh)
Sendok (SUHN-do')
Garpu (GAR-poo)
Pisau (PEE-sow)
Sumpit (SOOM-pi(t))
Excuse me, waiter! (getting attention of server)
Permisi! (PUHR-mih-see)
May I have a glass of _____?
Bolehkah saya minta satu gelas _____? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah MIN-tah SAH-too guh-LAHSS_____?)
May I have a cup of _____?
Bolehkah saya minta satu cangkir_____? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah MIN-tah SAH-too CHAHNG-keer _____?)
May I have a bottle of _____?
Bolehkah saya minta satu botol _____? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah MIN-tah SAH-too BOH-tol _____?)
Kopi (KO-pee)
Teh (teh)
Jus (joos)
Sparkling water
Air soda (AH-eer SOH-dah)
Air (AH-eer)
Bir (beer)
Red/white wine
Anggur merah/putih (AHNG-goor MEH-rah/POO-tee)
May I have some _____?
Bolehkah saya minta _____? (BOH-leh-kah SAH-yah MIN-tah)
Garam (GAH-ram)
Black pepper
Lada hitam (LAH-dah HEE-tahm)
Chili sauce
Saus sambal (SAH-ooss SAHM-bahl)
Tomato sauce
Saus tomat (SAH-ooss TOH-mah(t))
Mentega (muhn-TEH-gah)
I'm finished.
Saya sudah selesai (SAH-yah SOO-dah suh-luh-SIGH)
I'm full.
Saya kenyang (SAH-yah KUH-nyahng)
It was delicious.
Tadi enak rasanya. (TAH-dee EH-nah' RAH-sah-nyah)
Please clear the plates.
Tolong ambil piringnya. (TO-long AHM-bil PIH-ring-nyah)
Please clean the table.
Tolong bersihkan mejanya. (TOH-long BUHR-seeh-kahn MEH-jah-nyah)
The check/bill, please.
Minta bon. (MIN-tah bon)


Mini bar in the town of Bira, Sulawesi. Bir is beer in Indonesian.
Do you serve alcohol?
Apakah menyajikan alkohol? (AH-pah-kah muh-NYAH-jee-kahn AHL-koh-hol?)
I want a beer/two beers.
Saya mau minta satu/dua bir. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah SAH-too/DOO-ah beer)
I want a glass of red/white wine
Saya mau minta satu gelas anggur merah/putih. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah SAH-too guh-LAHSS AHNG-goor MEH-rah/POO-tee)
I want a bottle
Saya mau minta satu botol. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah SAH-too BO-tol)
_____ (liquor) and _____ (mixer), please.
Saya mau minta _____ dan _____. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah ___ dahn ___)
Whisky (WIS-kee)
Vodka (VOD-kah)
Rum (rahm)
Local palm nectar spirit
Arak (AH-rah')
Air putih (AH-eer POO-tee)
Sparkling water
Air soda (AH-eer SOH-dah)
Tonic water
Air tonik (AH-eer TO-ni')
(Orange) juice
Jus (jeruk) (juss JUH-roo')
Coca Cola
Coca Cola (KOH-kah KOH-lah)
Do you have any bar snacks?
Apakah ada makanan kecil? (AH-pah-kah AH-dah MAH-kah-nahn KUH-cheel)
One more, please.
Saya mau minta satu lagi. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah SAH-too LAH-gee)
Another round, please.
Saya mau minta satu ronde lagi. (SAH-yah MAH-oo MIN-tah SAH-too RON-deh LAH-gee)
When is closing time?
Jam berapa tutup? (jahm buh-RAH-pah TOO-too(p)?)
Bersulang! (Buhr-SOOH-lang)


Saying no to single-use plastic

Indonesia is drowning in single use plastic. Cheap, low-quality plastic bags are handed out freely in shops, and a cold drink is never served without a plastic straw. These clog up landfills, if they get there at all. They are either burned or dumped in rivers where they eventually get to the ocean. Indonesia is the world's 2nd biggest contributor of plastic trash in the oceans. Please do your bit by saying no to plastic bags and drinking straws, like this:

No thanks, I don't need a plastic bag
Terima kasih, saya tidak perlu kresek (tuh-REE-mah KAH-see, SAH-yah TEE-dah' PUHR-loo KREH-seh').
I don't want to use a straw
Saya tidak mau pakai sedotan (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAH-oo PAH-kay suh-DOT-ahn).
Jual (JOO-ahl)
Beli (BUH-lee)
Tawar (TAH-wahr) (NOTE: the word can also mean to offer)
Do you have this in my size?
Apakah ini ada yang ukuran saya? (AH-pah-kah IH-nee AH-dah yahng OO-koo-rahn SAH-yah?)
How much is this?
Berapa harganya? (buh-RAH-pah HAR-gah-nyah?)
That's too expensive.
Terlalu mahal. (tuhr-LAH-loo MAH-hahl)
Would you take _____?
Kalau _____ bagaimana? (KAH-low ____ BAH-gigh-MAH-nah?)
Mahal (mah-HAHL)
Murah (MOO-rah)
I can't afford it.
Saya tidak mampu beli itu. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAHM-poo BUH-lee IH-too)
I don't want it.
Saya tidak mau (SAH-yah TEE-dah' MAH-oo)
You're cheating me.
Kau menipu saya (KAH-oo muh-NEE-poo SAH-yah)
I'm not interested.
Saya tidak tertarik. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' tuhr-TAH-ri')
The quality is bad/not good.
Kualitasnya jelek/tidak bagus. (kwah-lee-TAHS-nyah JUH-leh'/TEE-dah' BAH-gooss)
OK, I'll buy it.
Baiklah, saya beli. (BIGHK-lah, SAH-yah BUH-lee)
Do you ship (overseas)?
Bisakah dikirim (ke luar negeri)? (BEE-sah-kah dee-KIH-rim (kuh LOO-ahr nuh-GREE?))
Shoes in an Indonesian department store
I need...
Saya perlu... (SAH-yah PUHR-loo...)
...pasta gigi/odol. (PAHS-tah GEE-gee, O-dol)
...a toothbrush.
...sikat gigi. (SEE-kah(t) GIH-gee)
...kondom. (KON-dom)
...softek/pembalut. (puhm-BAH-loot)
...sabun. (SAH-boon)
...sampo. (SAHM-poh)
...pain relief.
...obat pereda sakit. (O-baht puh-REH-dah SAH-keet)
...cold medicine.
...obat pilek. (O-baht PIH-luh')
...upset stomach medicine.
...obat sakit perut. (O-baht SAH-kee(t) PUH-roo(t))
...a razor.
...cukuran. (CHUH-koor-ahn) umbrella.
...payung. (PAH-yoong)
...a postcard.
...kartu pos. (KAR-too poss)
...postage stamps.
...perangko. (puh-RAHNG-koh)
...baterai. (BAH-tuh-ray)
...writing paper.
...kertas. (KUHR-tahss)
...a pen.
...pulpen. (POOL-pehn)
...English-language books.
...buku-buku bahasa Inggris. (BOO-koo boo-koo bah-HAH-sah ING-griss)
...English-language magazines.
...majalah bahasa Inggris. (mah-JAH-lah bah-HAH-sah ING-griss) English-language newspaper.
...surat kabar/koran (bahasa Inggris). (SOO-rah(t) KAH-bar/KOR-ahn (bah-HAH-sah ING-gris))

NOTE: the Islamic holy book is referred to as al-Quran (ahl KOOR-ahn) English-Indonesian dictionary.
...kamus Inggris-Indonesia. (KAH-mooss ING-griss in-doh-NEH-zhah)


Wedding procession in Lombok
Are you married?
Apakah Anda sudah menikah? (AH-pah-kah AHN-dah SOO-dah muh-NEE-kah?)
I am married.
Saya sudah menikah (SAH-yah SOO-dah muh-NEE-kah.)
I am not married yet.
Saya belum menikah (SAH-yah buh-LOOM muh-NEE-kah.)
Do you have brothers and sisters?
Apakah punya saudara? (AH-pah-kah POON-yah sow-DAH-rah?)
Do you have any children?
Sudah punya anak? (SOO-dah POON-yah AHN-ah'''?)
Ayah (AH-yah)
Ibu (IH-boo)
Older brother
Kakak laki-laki (KAH-kah' LAH-kee LAH-kee)
Older sister
Kakak perempuan (KAH-kah' puh-RUHM-poo-WAHN)
Younger brother
Adik laki-laki (AH-di' LAH-kee LAH-kee)
Younger sister
Adik perempuan (AH-di' puh-RUHM-poo-WAN)
Kakek (KAH-keh')
Nenek (NEH-neh')
Paman (PAH-mahn)/om (ohm)
Bibi (BIH-bee)/tante (TAHN-tuh)
Suami (SWAH-mee)
Istri (ISS-tree)
Putra (POO-trah)
Putri (POO-tree)
Cucu (CHOO-choo)
Sepupu (suh-POO-poo)
Keponakan (kuh-POH-nah-kahn)
Mertua (muhr-TOO-ah)
Menantu (muh-NAHN-too)


Decorated toll plaza, Bali
I want to rent a car
Saya mau sewa mobil. (SAH-yah MAH-oo SAY-wah MO-beel)
Can I get insurance?
Bisakah saya minta asuransi? (BEE-sah-kah SAH-yah MIN-tah ah-soo-RAHN-see)
Lalu lintass (LAH-loo LIN-tahss)
Traffic jam
Macet (MAH-cheh(t))
Berhenti! (buhr-HUHN-tee)
Stop (on a street sign)
One way
Satu arah (SAH-too AH-rah)
No parking
Dilarang parkir (DEE-lah-rahng PAR-keer)
Dead end
Jalan buntu (JAH-lahn BOON-too)
Kecelakaan (kuh-chuh-LAH-kah-ahn)
Gas (petrol) station
Pom bensin (pom BEHN-zeen)
Bensin (BEHN-zeen)
Solar (SOH-lar)


Traffic police in Jakarta
What happened?
Apa yang terjadi? (AH-pah yahng tuhr-JAH-dee?)
What are you doing?
Apa yang sedang Anda lakukan (AH-pah yang SUH-dahng AHN-dah LAH-koo-kahn)
I haven't done anything wrong.
Saya tidak berbuat salah. (SAH-yah TEE-dah' buhr-BOO-ah(t) SAH-lah)
It was a misunderstanding.
Itu kesalahpahaman. (IH-too kuh-SAH-lah-PAH-hahm-ahn)
Where are you taking me?
Ke mana saya dibawa ? (kuh MAH-nah SAH-yah dee-BAH-wah?)
Am I under arrest?
Apakah saya ditahan? (AH-pah-kah SAH-yah dee-TAH-han?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
Saya warga negara Amerika/Australia/Inggris/Kanada. (SAH-yah WAR-gah nuh-GAH-rah ah-MEH-ree-kah/oss-TRAH-lee-yah/ING-gris/KAH-nah-dah)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
Saya ingin bicara dengan Kedutaan Besar/Konsulat Amerika/Australia/Inggris/Kanada. (SAH-yah ING-in bih-CHAH-rah DUHNG-ahn kuh-DOO-tah-ahn/kon-SOO-laht ah-MEH-ree-kah/oss-TRAH-lee-yah/ING-gris/KAH-nah-dah)
I want to talk to a lawyer.
Saya mau bicara dengan pengacara. (SAH-yah MAH-oo bee-CHAH-rah DUHNG-ahn puhng-ah-CHAH-rah)
Can I just pay a fine here now?
Bisakah saya bayar denda di tempat saja? (BEE-sah-kah SAH-yah BAH-yar DUHN-dah dih TUHM-pah(t) SAH-jah?)

NOTE: Be sure it is clear from context that you aren't offering a bribe. If they ask for a bribe, they may use the phrase uang damai (OO-ahng DAH-migh) (lit. peace money).

Country and territory namesEdit

In general, the names of countries either retain their official name or are loaned from English, with some spelling and pronunciation adaptations suitable for Indonesian speakers. Names ending with -land (i.e.: Poland, Finland, Ireland, or Iceland) usually take -landia (respectively Polandia, Finlandia, Irlandia, Islandia). Exceptions are listed below.

For indicating nationality, use the word for person orang (OH-rang) followed by the name of the country.

Aljazair (AHL-jah-ZAH-yeer)
Belgia (BÉl-gi-yah)
Kamboja (kahm-BOH-jah)
Siprus (SEE-proos)
The Czech Republic
Republik Ceko (reh-POOB-li' CHÉH-koh)
Tiongkok (tee-ONG-ko'); Chinese: Tionghoa (tee-ONG-hwah)
While the term "Cina" is still used to refer to China in Malay, it is today considered derogatory in Indonesian.
East Timor
Timor Leste (TEE-moor LÉST-téh)
Translating the namesake country literally to Timor Timur is frowned upon, as the name was historically used before its independence from Indonesia.
Mesir (MEH-seer)
Perancis (puh-RAHN-chiss)
Jerman (JEHR-mahn)
Yunani (yoo-NAH-nee)
Hungaria (hoong-GAH-ree-yah)
Italia (ih-TAH-lee-yah)
Jepang (JEH-pang)
Yordania (yor-DAH-nee-ah)
The Maldives
Maladewa (mah-lah-DÉH-wah)
Maroko (mah-RO-koh)
The Netherlands
Belanda (buh-LAN-dah)
New Zealand
Selandia Baru (seh-LAN-dee-ah BAH-roo)
North Korea
Korea Utara (koh-RÉ-yah oo-TAH-RAH)
Norwegia (nor-WÉH-gi-yah)
Palestina (pal-les-TEE-nah)
The Philippines
Filipina (fih-lih-PI-nah)
Singapura (sing-ah-POOR-ah)
South Africa
Afrika Selatan (AHF-ree-kah suh-LAH-tahn)
South Korea
Korea Selatan (koh-RÉ-yah suh-LAH-tahn)
Spanyol (SPAN-yol)
Swedia (SWÉ-dee-yah)
Suriah (SOO-ree-yah)
Swiss (swiss)
Uni Emirat Arab (OO-nee ÉH-mee-raht AH-rab)
officially Britania Raya (brih-TAH-nih-yah RAH-yah), but Indonesians usually use Inggris (ING-griss), the word for England. You can use the words Skotlandia, Wales (WAH-lehss) and Irlandia Utara (ihr-LAHND-ee-yah oo-TAH-rah) to explain how the country is really formulated.
Amerika Serikat (ah-MÉH-ree-kah SUH-ree-kah(t))

Learning moreEdit

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