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language spoken in Northeast China


Manchu (ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ) is the indigenous language of Manchuria. Until 1911, it was the official language of China under the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty (ᡩᠠᡳ᠌ᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ). However, the language rapidly declined after the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, in which the dynasty was overthrown. The language was in decline even during the Qing era, as many Han Chinese migrated to Manchuria. This process was accelerated by persecution against Manchus by Chinese Revolutionaries, persecution by the Japanese during the Manchukuo Era, and by the Cultural Revolution.

Consequently, even though there are about 10 million Manchus today, only about a million can speak the language and only about 70, mostly elderly in isolated villages, can speak it natively. Manchus live mainly in the Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The Xibe language spoken in Qapqal Xibe Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang is closely related to Manchu and is therefore mutually intelligible. Virtually every Manchu speaker is also able to speak Mandarin, so learning Manchu is generally not necessary to communicate, though as with almost any language, attempts by outsiders to speak it are always appreciated.


Pronunciation guideEdit

VowelsEdit

Initial Medial Final
ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ ‍ᠠ᠋ a=a
ᡝ‍ ‍ᡝ‍ ‍ᡝ᠋‍ ‍ᡝ ‍ᡝ᠋ ‍ᡝ᠌ e=e
ᡳ‍ ‍ᡳ‍ ‍ᡳ᠋‍ ‍ᡳ ‍ᡳ᠋ ‍ᡳ᠌ ‍ᡳ᠍ i=i
ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ ‍ᠣ᠋ o=o
ᡠ‍ ‍ᡠ‍ ‍ᡠ᠋‍ ‍ᡠ ‍ᡠ᠋ ‍ᡠ᠌ ‍ᡠ᠍ u=u
ᡡ‍ ‍ᡡ‍ ‍ᡡ v or ū=uu
ᡳᡠ᠋ᡳ ᡳᡠ᠋ᡳ᠌‍ ‍ᡳᡠ᠋ᡳ᠌‍ ‍ᡳᡠ᠋ᡳ ioi, pronounced as French u or German ü

ConsonantsEdit

Initial Medial Final
ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ᠋‍ ‍ᠨ ‍ᠨ᠋ n=n
ᡴ‍ ‍ᡴ‍ ‍ᡴ᠌‍ ‍ᡴ k=q
ᡤ‍ ‍ᡤ‍ g=g, sometimes pronounced as Arabic ق or Hebrew ק
ᡥ‍ ‍ᡥ‍ h=kh
ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ b=b
ᡦ‍ ‍ᡦ‍ p=p
ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ s=s
ᡧ‍ ‍ᡧ‍ x or š=sh
ᡨ‍ ‍ᡨ‍ ‍ᡨ᠌‍ ‍ᡨ t=t
ᡩ‍ ‍ᡩ‍ d=d
ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ l=l
ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ m=m
ᠴ‍ ‍ᠴ‍ c=ch
ᠵ‍ ‍ᠵ‍ j=j
ᠶ‍ ‍ᠶ‍ y=y
ᡴ᠋‍ ᠺ‍ ‍ᡴ᠋‍ ‍ᠺ‍ ‍ᡴ᠋ k'=k
ᡤ᠋‍ ᡬ‍ ‍ᡤ᠋‍ ‍ᡬ‍ g'=g
ᡥ᠋‍ ᡭ‍ ‍ᡥ᠋‍ ‍ᡭ‍ h'=h
ᡵ‍ ‍ᡵ‍ ‍ᡵ r=r
ᡶ‍ ᡶ᠋‍ ‍ᡶ‍ ‍ᡶ᠋‍ f=f
ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ‍ w=w
ᡮ‍ ‍ᡮ‍ ts'
ᡯ‍ ‍ᡯ‍ ts
ᡰ‍ ‍ᡰ‍ r'
‍ᠩ‍ ‍ᠩ ng=ŋ

Common diphthongsEdit

Phrase listEdit

BasicsEdit

Common signs


OPEN 
CLOSED 
ENTRANCE 
EXIT 
PUSH 
PULL 
TOILET 
MEN 
WOMEN 
FORBIDDEN 
Hello. 
(ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠶᡡᠨ᠉) (saiyvn?)
Hello. ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠨ ᠨᠣ᠉ (sain no?)
How are you? 
ᠰᡳ ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠶᡡᠨ᠉ (si saiyvn?)
Fine, thank you. 
ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠨ ᠪᠠᠨᡳᡥᠠ᠉ (sain, baniha.)
What is your name? 
ᠰᡳᠨᡳ ᡤᡝᠪᡠ ᠠᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᠪᡳ᠉ ? (sini gebu ai sembi?)
My name is ______ . 
ᠮᡳᠨᡳ ᡤᡝᠪᡠ ᠣᠴᡳ ______᠉ (mini gebu oci _____ .)
Nice to meet you. 
ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠨ ᡠᠴᠠᡵᠠᠮᠪᡳ ᠰᡠᠸᡝ (sain ucarambi suwe)
Please. 
ᠪᡠᠴᡳᠨᠠ᠉ (᠋bucina)
Thank you. 
ᠪᠠᠨᡳᡥᠠ᠉ (baniha.)
You're welcome. 
ᡠᠮᡝ ᠠᠨᡨᠠᡥᠠᡵᠠᡵᠠ᠉ . (ume antaharara.)ᡠᠮᡝ ᠠᠨᡨᠠᡥᠠᡧᠠᡵᠠ᠉ (ume antahaxara.)
Yes. 
ᠪᡳ᠉ (bi)
No. 
ᠠᡴᡡ᠉ (akv)
Yes, it is. 
ᡳᠨᡠ᠉ (inu)
No, it isn't. 
ᠸᠠᡴᠠ᠉ (waka)
Excuse me. (getting attention
. ( )
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
I'm sorry. 
ᡤᡳᠯᠵᠠᡴᡳ᠉ (giljaki.)
Goodbye 
ᠵᠠᡳ ᠠᠴᠠᡴᡳ᠉ . (jai acaki)
Goodbye (informal
. ( )
I can't speak name of language
ᠪᡳ name of languageᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠉(bi name of language bahanarakv.)
Do you speak name of language
ᠰᡳ name of languageᠪᠠᡥᠠᠨᠠᠮᠪᡳᡠ᠋᠉ (si name of language bahanambiu?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
 ? ( ?)
Help! 
! ( !)
Look out! 
! ( !)
Good morning. 
ᡝᡵᡩᡝ ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠶᡡᠨ᠉ (erde saiyvn. )
Good evening. 
ᠶᠠᠮᠵᡳ ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠶᡡᠨ᠉ (yamji saiyvn. )
Good night. 
. ᡩᠣᠪᠣᡵᡳ ᡝᠯᡥᡝ ᠣᡴᡳᠨᡳ᠉ (dobori elhe okini. )
Good night (to sleep
ᠰᠠᡳ᠌ᠨ ᡨᡝᠶᡝᡴᡳ᠉ (sain teyeki.)
I don't understand. 
ᡠᠯᡥᡳᡵᠠᡴᡡ᠉ (ulhirakv.)
Where is the toilet? 
ᠪᡳ ᡨᡠᠯᡝ ᡤᡝᠨᡝᡴᡳ᠉ ? (bi tule geneki.)

ProblemsEdit

Leave me alone. 
. ( .)
Don't touch me! 
! ( !)
I'll call the police. 
ᠪᡳ ᠰᡝᠮᠪᡳ ᡦᠣᠴᠯᡠᡤᠠ. (bi sembi pocluga .)
Police! 
 ! ( !)
Stop! Thief! 
(ᡧᡨᠣᡦ ᡨᡥᡳᡝᡶ)! ! ( ! !)
I need your help. 
. ( .)
It's an emergency. 
. ( .)
I'm lost. 
. ( .)
I lost my bag. 
. ( .)
I lost my wallet. 
. ( .)
I'm sick. 
. ( .)
I've been injured. 
. ( .)
I need a doctor. 
. ( .)
Can I use your phone? 
 ? ( ?)

NumbersEdit

ᡝᠮᡠ (emu)
ᠵᡠᠸᡝ (juwe)
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ (ilan)
ᡩᡠᡳ᠌ᠨ (duin)
ᠰᡠᠨᠵᠠ (sunja)
ᠨᡳᠩᡤᡠᠨ (ninggun)
ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨ (nadan)
ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ (jakvn)
ᡠᠶᡠᠨ (uyun)
10 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ (juwan)
11 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᡝᠮᡠ
(juwan emu)
12 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᠵᡠᠸᡝ
(juwan juwe)
13 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
(juwan ilan)
14 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᡩᡠᡳ᠌ᠨ
(juwan duin)
15 
ᡨᠣᡶᠣᡥᠣᠨ(tofohon)
16 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᠨᡳᠩᡤᡠᠨ
(juwan ninggun)
17 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨ
(juwan nandan)
18 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ
(juwan jakvn)
19 
ᠵᡠᠸᠠᠨ
ᡠᠶᡠᠨ
(juwan uyun)
20 
ᠣᡵᡳᠨ( orin)
21 
ᠣᡵᡳᠨ
ᡝᠮᡠ
( orin emu)
22 
ᠣᡵᡳᠨ
ᠵᡠᠸᡝ
( orin juwe)
23 
ᠣᡵᡳᠨ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
( orin ilan)
30 
ᡤᡡᠰᡳᠨ( gvsin)
40 
ᡩᡝᡥᡳ( dehi)
50 
ᠰᡠᠰᠠᡳ( susai)
60 
ᠨᡳᠨᠵᡠ( ninju)
70 
ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠨᠵᡠ( nadanju)
80 
ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨᠵᡠ( jakvnju)
90 
ᡠᠶᡠᠨᠵᡠ( uyunju)
100 
ᡨᠠᠩᡤᡡ (tanggv)
200 
ᠵᡠᠸᡝ
ᡨᠠᠩᡤᡡ
(juwe tanggv )
300 
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᡨᠠᠩᡤᡡ
( ilan tanggv)
1,000 
ᠮᡳᠩᡤᠠᠨ ( minggan)
2,000 
ᠵᡠᠸᡝ
ᠮᡳᠩᡤᠠᠨ
( juwe minggan)
1,000,000 
ᡨᠠᠩᡤᡡ
ᡨᡠᠮᡝᠨ
( tanggv tumen)
1,000,000,000 
( )
1,000,000,000,000 
( )
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
( )
half 
ᡥᠣᠨᡨᠣᡥᠣ ( hontoho)
less 
( )
more 
ᡝᠯᡝᡳ ( elei)

TimeEdit

now 
ᡨᡝ ( te)
later 
( )
before 
( )
morning 
( )
afternoon 
( )
evening 
( )
night 
ᡩᠣᠪᠣᡵᡳ ( )

Clock timeEdit

one o'clock AM 
( )
two o'clock AM 
( )
noon 
( )
one o'clock PM 
( )
two o'clock PM 
( )
midnight 
( )

DurationEdit

_____ minute(s) 
( )
_____ hour(s) 
( )
_____ day(s) 
( )
_____ week(s) 
( )
_____ month(s) 
( )
_____ year(s) 
( )

DaysEdit

today 
ᡝᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ (enenggi )
yesterday 
ᠰᡳᡴᠰᡝ (sikse )
the day before yesterday 
ᠴᠠᠨᠠᠩᡤᡳ (cananggi )
tomorrow 
ᠴᡳᠮᠠᡵᡳ (cimari )
the day after tomorrow 
ᠴᠣᠷᠣ (coro )
this week 
( )
last week 
( )
next week 
( )
Sunday 
( )
Monday 
( )
Tuesday 
( )
Wednesday 
( )
Thursday 
( )
Friday 
( )
Saturday 
( )

MonthsEdit

January 
( )
February 
( )
March 
( )
April 
( )
May 
( )
June 
( )
July 
( )
August 
( )
September 
( )
October 
( )
November 
( )
December 
( )

Writing time and dateEdit

ColorsEdit

black 
ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ (sahaliyan)ᡴᠠᡵᠠ (kara)
white 
ᡧᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ (xanggiyan)ᡧᠠᠨᠶᠠᠨ (xanyan)
gray 
ᡶᡠᠯᡝᠩᡤᡳ
ᠪᠣᠴᠣ
(fulenggi boco)
red 
ᡶᡠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ (fulgiyan)
blue 
ᠯᠠᠮᡠᠨ (lamun)
yellow 
ᠰᡠᠸᠠᠶᠠᠨ (suwayan)
green 
ᠨᡳᡠ᠋ᠸᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ (niowanggiyan)
orange 
ᡥᠠᡴᠰᠠᠨ (haksan )
purple 
ᡧᡠᡧᡠ
ᠪᠣᠴᠣ
(xuxu boco)
brown 
ᡝᡳᡥᡝᡵᡳ ( eiheri)

TransportationEdit

Bus and trainEdit

How much is a ticket to _____? 
( )
One ticket to _____, please. 
( )
Where does this train/bus go? 
( )
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
( )
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
( )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
( )
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
( )

DirectionsEdit

How do I get to _____ ? 
( )
...the train station? 
( )
...the bus station? 
( )
...the airport? 
( )
...downtown? 
( )
...the youth hostel? 
( )
...the _____ hotel? 
( )
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
( )
Where are there a lot of... 
( )
...hotels? 
( )
...restaurants? 
( )
...bars? 
( )
...sites to see? 
( )
Can you show me on the map? 
( )
street 
( )
Turn left. 
( )
Turn right. 
( )
left 
ᡥᠠᠰᡥᡡ ᡝᡵᡤᡳ ( hashv ergi)
right 
( )
straight ahead 
( )
towards the _____ 
( )
past the _____ 
( )
before the _____ 
( )
Watch for the _____. 
( )
intersection 
( )
north 
ᠠᠮᠠᡵᡤᡳ ( amargi)
south 
( )
east 
ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ ( dergi)
west 
( )
uphill 
( )
downhill 
( )

TaxiEdit

Taxi! 
( )
Take me to _____, please. 
( )
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
( )
Take me there, please. 
( )

LodgingEdit

Do you have any rooms available? 
( )
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
( )
Does the room come with... 
( )
...bedsheets? 
( )
...a bathroom? 
( )
...a telephone? 
( )
...a TV? 
( )
May I see the room first? 
( )
Do you have anything quieter? 
( )
...bigger? 
( )
...cleaner? 
( )
...cheaper? 
( )
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
( )
Can you suggest another hotel? 
( )
Do you have a safe? 
( )
...lockers? 
( )
Is breakfast/supper included? 
( )
What time is breakfast/supper? 
( )
Please clean my room. 
( )
Can you wake me at _____? 
( )
I want to check out. 
( )

MoneyEdit

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
( )
Do you accept British pounds? 
( )
Do you accept Euros? 
( )
Do you accept credit cards? 
( )
Can you change money for me? 
( )
Where can I get money changed? 
( )
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
( )
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
( )
What is the exchange rate? 
( )
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
( )

EatingEdit

A table for one person/two people, please. 
( )
Can I look at the menu, please? 
( )
Can I look in the kitchen? 
( )
Is there a house specialty? 
( )
Is there a local specialty? 
( )
I'm a vegetarian. 
( )
I don't eat pork. 
( )
I don't eat beef. 
( )
I only eat kosher food. 
( )
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
( )
fixed-price meal 
( )
a la carte 
( )
breakfast 
( )
lunch 
( )
tea (meal
( )
supper 
( )
I want _____. 
( )
I want a dish containing _____. 
( )
chicken 
( )
beef 
( )
fish 
( )
ham 
( )
sausage 
( )
cheese 
( )
eggs 
( )
salad 
( )
(fresh) vegetables 
( )
(fresh) fruit 
( )
bread 
( )
toast 
( )
noodles 
( )
rice 
( )
beans 
( )
May I have a glass of _____? 
( )
May I have a cup of _____? 
( )
May I have a bottle of _____? 
( )
coffee 
( )
tea (drink
( )
juice 
( )
(bubbly) water 
( )
(still) water 
( )
beer 
( )
red/white wine 
( )
May I have some _____? 
( )
salt 
( )
black pepper 
( )
butter 
( )
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
( )
I'm finished. 
( )
It was delicious. 
( )
Please clear the plates. 
( )
The check, please. 
( )

BarsEdit

Do you serve alcohol? 
( )
Is there table service? 
( )
A beer/two beers, please. 
( )
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
( )
A pint, please. 
( )
A bottle, please. 
( )
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
( )
whiskey 
( )
vodka 
( )
rum 
( )
water 
( )
club soda 
( )
tonic water 
( )
orange juice 
( )
Coke (soda
( )
Do you have any bar snacks? 
( )
One more, please. 
( )
Another round, please. 
( )
When is closing time? 
( )
Cheers! 
(umicki)

ShoppingEdit

Do you have this in my size? 
( )
How much is this? 
( )
That's too expensive. 
( )
Would you take _____? 
( )
expensive 
( )
cheap 
( )
I can't afford it. 
( )
I don't want it. 
( )
You're cheating me. 
( )
I'm not interested. 
(..)
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
Can I have a bag? 
( )
Do you ship (overseas)? 
( )
I need... 
( )
...toothpaste. 
( )
...a toothbrush. 
( )
...tampons. 
. ( )
...soap. 
( )
...shampoo. 
( )
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
( )
...cold medicine. 
( )
...stomach medicine. 
... ( )
...a razor. 
( )
...an umbrella. 
( )
...sunblock lotion. 
( )
...a postcard. 
( )
...postage stamps. 
( )
...batteries. 
( )
...writing paper. 
( )
...a pen. 
( )
...English-language books. 
( )
...English-language magazines. 
( )
...an English-language newspaper. 
( )
...an English-English dictionary. 
( )

DrivingEdit

I want to rent a car. 
( )
Can I get insurance? 
( )
stop (on a street sign
( )
one way 
( )
yield 
( )
no parking 
( )
speed limit 
( )
gas (petrol) station 
( )
petrol 
( )
diesel 
( )

AuthorityEdit

I haven't done anything wrong. 
( )
It was a misunderstanding. 
( )
Where are you taking me? 
( )
Am I under arrest? 
( )
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
( )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
( )
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
( )
Can I just pay a fine now? 
( )


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