- For the Nigerian state, see Niger State
Niger (Nee-ZHAIR, rarely NY-jer) is a large, arid, landlocked country situated in the Sahel. Formerly a French colony, Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world and is largely agrarian. Negative things aside, Nigeriens in general are quite friendly and down-to earth, and you can expect to come across numerous curious faces during your stay. Chances are, you may be the first person from your country they have ever met!
Tourism in this large country is limited, but travel allows you to explore an isolated nation tucked away from the rest of the world.
- 1 Niamey — Although both the administrative capital and commercial centre, possibly the least crowded and hectic capital in West Africa
- 2 Agadez — A trade hub along trans-Saharan trade routes for over five centuries, home to a magnificent palace and several mosques and a gateway to the nearby Air Mountains
- 3 Ayorou — Along picturesque section of the River Niger with one of Niger's best markets, and a starting point for river trips to Gaya
- Diffa — Peul town between shifting sand dunes and disappearing swampland which serves as the gateway to SE Niger & Lake Chad
- Dosso — has a small ethnic museum, colourful market and even more colourful chief's palace
- 4 Maradi — Centre of agriculture (especially peanuts), home to a colorful chief's palace, and near seasonal rivers/floodplains which have caused interesting land formations to the south
- Tahoua — Stop en route to Agadez
- 5 Zinder — The cultural capital of Niger, this Peul-Hausa city has perhaps the most colourful craft markets (pottery & tanning are local specialities) as well as a noteworthy regional museum and sultan's palace
Other destinations edit
- 1 W National Park — magnificent National Park, easiest accessed from Niamey
- 2 Koure — See the last herd of giraffes in West Africa
- Balleyara Market — Two hours from Niamey, one of West Africa's largest animal markets, plus a colourful array of other traditional market and artisan wares (Sundays)
- 3 Ayorou — A river-side town three hours from Niamey with a colorful, laid-back Sunday market as well as pirougue tours to see the hippos and islands
- Bilma — an oasis situated in the northeast
- Boubon — Bar/restaurant and huts to rent nightly on an island in the Niger River
- Termit & Tin Toumma National Nature and Cultural Reserve — one of Africa's largest reserves (twice as large as Costa Rica), the park protects several animals (including the critically endangered addax, Dama gazelle, & desert cheetah), protects the nomadic culture, and features lots of scenic desert landscape. Established in 2012, it will take a few years for guides, ecotours, and facilities to become available.
- 4 Air and Ténéré Natural Reserve — a natural reserve in the desert, inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Population||21.4 million (2017)|
|Electricity||220 volt / 50 hertz (NEMA 1-15, NEMA 5-15, Europlug, AC power plugs and sockets: British and related types, Type E, Schuko)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00, Africa/Niamey|
|Emergencies||17 (police), 18 (fire department)|
|edit on Wikidata|
Not until 1993, 35 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999. In 2009, a coup d'état toppled the elected-turned-dictator government, and returned Niger to an electoral democracy. After the transition to democracy, Niger became a strong ally of Western states like the United States and France, both of which established military bases and military cooperation with the Nigerien armed forces. Niger has played an outsized role in the global anti-terror movement, serving as a base of operations for the fight against insurgents in the Sahel and Saharan regions. However, this has led to an increase in terrorist attacks in and around Niger itself by militants that cross the porous borders from Mali and Burkina Faso.
Although Niger has huge economic potential, Niger has never particularly been a wealthy country and the country has a myriad of social, economic, and political problems. Most people live in poverty and work as farmers. Niger is also the country with the youngest average population.
Niger's economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid — which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'état — for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01, the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms. However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Niger is the world's second poorest country and has the world's lowest standard of living.
Niger has a population of over 25 million. The Hausa (Zarma and Songhai) make up the largest ethnic groups of Niger.
Over 20% of Nigeriens are made up of nomadic and livestock raising tribes, including Fulani, Tuareg, Wodaabe, Kanuri, Arabs and Toubou.
The official language in Niger is French, although very few people speak it outside Niamey and even there do not expect a high level conversation with the traders at the markets. The local languages include Djerma (spoken mainly in Niamey and the bordering Tillaberi and Dosso regions), Hausa, Fulfulde and Tamashek (spoken by the Tuaregs in the north), and Kanuri (spoken by Beri Beri). English is of no use outside the American cultural center and a few big hotels in Niamey. However, you will find English-speakers in border towns along the Nigerian border, such as Birni N Konni and Maradi. These people are usually from Nigeria to the south and in general want something from you. As friendly as they may be, always listen to a professional guide over anyone that speaks some English.
If you learn about 20 phrases in a local language, you will gain respect in a heartbeat. Simply greeting people in their local tongue will make your trip there smoother than you would have ever thought possible.
Top essential Zarma/Djerma phrases:
- Fofo: hello
- Mate ni go? (mah-tay nee go?): How are you?
- Samay (sawm-eye): Fine
- Man no...? Where is...?
- Ay ga ba... (Eye gah bah): I want...
- Wo-ne: That one
- To: OK.
- Ay mana faham (eye) MAH fah-ham: I don't understand.
- KaLA-tonton: Goodbye
Top essential Hausa phrases:
- Sannu: Hello
- Me sunanka: What is your name?
- Kana LA-hiya: How are you?
- LA-hiya LO: It's all good.
- Na GO-day: Thank you
- Sai ANjima: Goodbye
- Na GO-day, Na KO-shi: Thank you, I am full. (Polite response when offered food you are afraid to eat)
Some Arabic words are also common:
- salam-u-laikum, which roughly means, "peace be with you," and is used in Niger when you enter a house or greet someone
- al hamdallaye, which means to a Nigerien "Bless it, it's finished." It can also mean "no thank you." The latter can also get you out of having to sample possibly dirty food, or from eating at someone's home until your stomach explodes.
- In-shah-allah, which means "God willing." For example, "I'll come to visit your family in-shah-allah."
Get in edit
Trevallers who have been vaccinated for COVID-19 at least 28 days prior to travel are not required to present a negative test result. Unvaccinated travellers must hold a negative PCR test result obtained within 72 hours prior to arrival. The required validity of the test is 5 days for passengers travelling from Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte D’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, or Togo). (Jan 2023)
Visas are required by all nationals except:
- Nationals of the African countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Tunisia, as well as those of Hong Kong
- Alien residents holding a valid Permis de Séjour or Visa de Séjour
- Transit passengers continuing their journey within 24 hours who do not leave the airport
An International Vaccination Certificate for Yellow fever is mandatory, but Cholera vaccination certification is required only if travelling from a neighbouring country where an outbreak of the disease has been reported.
- At the London Niger consulate, single entry visas are GBP120, double GBP220 and a multiple entry visa valid for one year costs GBP260.
- Overland travellers can acquire a visa from the consulate in Parakou, Bénin. A hotel address in Niger is required and the consul will issue a 30-day visa for 22,500 CFA (€34) on the spot (January 2019).
- The Nigerien embassy in Abuja, Nigeria offers up to 90 days, multiple-entry visa for NGN 20,000 (€39), 180 days is also available for a higher price. Requirements are two passport photos and a reference in Niger. They will send your application to headquarters in Niamey, which usually takes a long time to reply. But if you explain that you are short on time they will often be happy to give you the visa anyway (November 2016).
- A 30-day visa from the Niger Embassy in Ouagadougou Burkina Faso cost CFA 25,000 =£34.
By plane edit
There is one international airport (Aéroport International Diori Hamani de Niamey) in Niamey.
- Air Algerie flies from Algiers a few times a week (sometimes including a stopover in Ouagadougou).
- Asky Airlines and Air Burkina connect Niamey with Ouagadougou
- Air Côte d'Ivoire flies daily from Abidjan
- Ethiopian Airlines flies from Addis Ababa a few times a week
- Afriquiyah connects Niamey with Tripoli (Mitiga) a few time a week
- Royal Air Maroc flies almost daily from Casablanca
- Asky Airlines and Air France fly from Lomé
- Turkish Airlines offer flights from Istanbul (IST) via Bamako
- Tunisair connect Niamey to Tunis
There are a few private companies and one mission aviation group (SIMAir) that do charter flights from Niamey in small planes.
By car edit
Travellers can get to Niger overland by roads from Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin and Nigeria.
Some adventurous souls still cross the Sahara from the north (Algeria), but that area is not secure.
As with most of the other Saharan and Sahelian states, the borders of Niger are truly just "lines in the sand" and thus are extremely porous. With the dangerous security situations in neighboring states (c.f. Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad, northern Nigeria, and Libya), conflict can spill over into Niger and there is a general sense of lawlessness around borders, especially in the Saharan part of the country. It is probably safe to say that, as of 2023, no land border should be considered safe to cross.
By bus edit
There are a number of private companies offering bus services from Niger to neighbouring countries and even as far as Dakar and Nouakchott (e.g. Rimbo Transport Voyageurs or SONEF). They are daily services to Lomé and Cotonou (stopping at Parakou and some towns on the road), as well as Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Nouakchott (all through Ouagadougou). The service to Gao in Mali was suspended due to security reasons. Tickets can be bought on at the respective companies or a sales office in town.
Along the Nigerian border there are local minibuses and taxis which connect Maradi and Zinder with Katsina and Kano. Normally you do not have to change vehicle at the border.
Get around edit
By road edit
Of the 19,000 km of highways, around 4,000 km is paved (as of 2010) and efforts are being made to improve some of the sections that have previously been endlessly under repair. You can travel from Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso all the way to Diffa, near Lake Chad on roads that are in decent to tolerable condition. The road from Niamey to "Park W" in the south is paved. The Zinder-Agadez route is being repaved after being in severe disrepair for years. The Birni Nkonni-Agadez-Arlit road is in poor shape.
The country has 27 airports/landing strips, 9 of which have paved runways.
Taxis in Niamey charge about CFA 200 if the distance isn't too long, or CFA 400 for going almost across the city. At the airport in Niamey there is a taxi monopoly and the lowest you'll get a taxi for is CFA 3,000 - and that's if you haggle a lot! However, if you walk south from the airport you'll hit a main road and for CFA 100-150 you can get a ride from a beat up van to the Grand Marché (Main Market), luggage included.
By bus edit
The Nigerien government operates a bus service along the major routes of the country. While taking cars is exciting and interesting, they are dangerous, extremely hot, and more expensive. Plus, they are forced to pull over after midnight due to banditry. Because these cars often only leave in the evening, it can take several days to travel a relatively short distance. The large buses are brand new Mercedes buses and they carry a soldier at night so they may drive all night long. In addition, due to their large size, they can skim over potholes that would destroy the smaller vans.
Rent a car edit
There is almost no possibility to rent a car in the usual sense, although in 2005 a Hertz franchise came to Niamey and rents Toyota RAV4s. Also, you can rent a full-size "cat-cat" (4x4 from the French quatre-quatre) with a driver/guide, but in most cases you will have to arrange with companies that organise expeditions.
- Tidene Expeditions, BP 270 Agadez, +227 440568, fax: +227 440 578
By air edit
Niger Airlines operates flights between Niamey (NIM), Zinder (ZDR), Agadez (AJY), and Diffa (DZRF) as of Mar 2020.
By rail edit
A railway line exists between Niamey and Dosso, but as of 2021 there are no trains operating.
- Aïr Mountains
- Ténéré Desert
- Parque Nacional Du W Du Niger
- Watch the observance of Guérewol, an annual courtship ritual amongst the Wodaabe peoples.
Exchange rates for CFA francs
As of January 2023:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The currency of the country is the West African CFA franc, denoted CFA (ISO currency code: XOF). It's also used by seven other West African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the Central African CFA franc (XAF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of 1 euro = 655.957 CFA francs.
US dollars and other foreign currency are not accepted in daily transactions, only to exchange into local money via a bank or black market. Exception: near the border of Nigeria, the devaluing Nigerian currency naira is accepted.
Ecobank take Mastercard and Visa card at their ATMs in Niger.
Bargaining and haggling is essential and expected. It's best to have a low price and a maximum price in mind before entering into a negotiation. If the price is higher than you want, just say thanks and walk away: if you were offering a fair price you will be called back. If you were offering too low a price, you won't be called back, but you can always go back later and offer more.
Nigerien artisan specialities include:
- intricately imprinted leather boxes (ranging from small 5-cm boxes to full-size trunks)
- other leather goods
- silver jewellery
- colourful hand-woven wedding blankets
- coloured straw mats (and here, we don't mean the plastic mats from China)
- fabric (only the Enitex brand is made in Niger, but there are many other kinds that are also good)
Local, traditional food includes:
- a dense millet porridge with an okra sauce, a pepper sauce, a tomato sauce, or a squash sauce on top, sometimes with veggies and a couple chunks of meat
- rice with the above sauces
- mushy macaroni pasta with an oily red sauce
- rice & beans
- corn cous-cous mixed with moringa leaves, black-eyed peas, and sauce (called dumbou in Djera/Zarma, and only available in Djerma/Zarma regions)
Availability varies widely by region, but visitors may wish to try the following delicious specialities, usually available as street food:
- dumbou (see above)
- kilishi: beef jerkey that comes in three flavours: regular, peanut-spiced, and hot-pepper-spiced
- masa: delicious sourdough pancakes eaten with a peanut/hot pepper/ginger spice mix or a brown sauce
- fari masa: fried dough balls served with either a squash/tomato salsa or sugar
- chichena: like fari masa above, but made from bean flour instead of wheat flour
- koudagou (Djerma/Zarma): fried sweet potato chunks with sauce
Less exotic but also tasty:
- brochettes — meat kabobs made from either beef, lamb, or goat
- omelet sandwiches
- mangoes: if in season, they are bigger and juicier than any available in the western world
- yoghurt: pasteurized, sweet, and available wherever there is a fridge
- fried fish sandwiches
- ground beef sandwiches
- plates of garlicky green beans or peas (usually in bars and restaurants)
Be careful of the salads — even in the city, they're usually not OK for western travellers.
- Drink plenty of filtered or bottled water. You will get dehydrated during your trip to Niger at one point. At times it can be hard to find bottled water, but ask for "Purewater" (pronounced pure-wata) that comes in sealed plastic bags for usually CFA 25 (CFA 50 in some hard-to-reach places). You will also need to replenish your salts more frequently than you are accustomed.
Keep in mind that drinking alcohol is generally forbidden in Muslim culture, so take extra care to keep drunken, inappropriate behaviour behind closed doors and out of the public eye.
The national beer is called, appropriately, Biere Niger. The only other locally produced beer is a franchise of the French West-African Flag brewery. While taste is in the eye of the beerholder, Biere Niger is decent. Both are brewed in the same tank from the same ingredients with the slightest variation on how much reconstituted malt they put in each batch. All other beer, boxed wine, and hard liquor is imported.
In rare pockets of the capital you can find millet beer homebrew, brewed by Burkinabe immigrants. This is drunk out of calabash gourd bowls. Some compare the taste to a dry, unsweetened cider. See the Niamey section for directions.
Locally-made non-alcoholic drinks are delicious. Safety depends on the water quality: generally OK in the capital and NOT OK in rural areas. They are either sold by women out of their houses (ask around), by young girls from trays on their heads, or by young boys pushing around coolers. These drinks include:
- lemu-hari: a sweet lemony-gingery drink
- bisap: a dark red kool-aid-type drink made from hibiscus leaves
- apollo: a thick, pinkish-brownish drink made from the baobab fruit
- degue: sweet yoghurt with small millet balls (like tapioca)
To drink, you bite the corner off the bag.
There is a dearth of educational opportunities in Niger. Illiteracy is a huge problem in Niger and most Nigeriens are unable to get an education.
This all is enough to say that the educational scene of the country is unlikely to be attractive to most people reading Wikivoyage.
Working in Niger can be a rewarding experience, but it is important to be aware of the potential risks involved. Security is a major concern and it is important to take precautions when working in the country.
Niger's biggest export happens to be people leaving Niger. Because the country is so poor, many Nigeriens move abroad in search of better opportunities.
Stay safe edit
Niger is politically unstable and lawlessness is widespread. The latest coup d'état in early 2010 increased the unstable situation and every traveller should follow independent news closely and stay in contact with their embassy. Vicious and sadistic Al-Qaeda and Boko Haram members are present in Niger and have kidnapped and killed many, so it is essential to know the off-limit regions and avoid them.
In the region north of Agadez, there have been many carjackings, kidnappings and robberies in the past sixteen or so years. The problem continues to this day, and tourists should consider the area essentially lawless. You should not venture beyond Agadez even if you have a guide and a 4x4 vehicle unless you seriously know what you are doing. The roads past this point are of terrible quality and bandits are abundant.
Avoid driving late at night in a private vehicle. Occasionally armed robbers will operate near the town of Galmi (central Niger) and around Dosso-Doutchi (in western Niger), as well as on the road to Gao, Mali in the Tillabery region. Normally, there are police checkpoints on the main highways which limit criminal activities during the day.
The main annoyances you are likely to meet are young boys shouting "Anasara", which means 'foreigner' in most local languages, derived from the Arabic word. You will also be asked for a 'cadeau' pretty much every time you see a person outside your hotel. The word is French for 'gift,' and it is best to remember not to perpetuate the misery this word causes to foreigners working in the country.
In Niamey the safety level is better. If you stay away from markets after dark and use taxis and are EXTRA careful to avoid where the streets cross ravines, you shouldn't run into any problems. In markets there is a risk of pickpockets or handbag straps being cut but you are more likely to lose money by haggling poorly and in French.
Carrying a backpack and camera, looking like a tourist, and especially being white, will definitely draw some unwanted attention. Most of the attention is from people who try to get your money legally, either by selling you a toothbrush or by begging, but there are always a few less honest people.
Stay healthy edit
The Centers for Disease Control is an excellent resource for authoritative advice on health issues for travellers to Niger.
Drink lots and lots of water while in Niger because the dry heat will dehydrate you and you won't realize it. It is the best preventative step you can take. Bottled water or water sealed in a bag (called pure-wata) is available in most of the cities but in a pinch, city tap water is well-chlorinated (this is according to one traveller; another American who lived in Niger for two years says never drink unfiltered water anywhere! — that includes ice!). Be particularly wary of well water, stream water, and rural water.
Be sure to replenish your salts as well as liquids.
Wear loose conservative clothes, big hats, and lots of sunscreen. If in doubt, wear what the locals wear.
Malaria, including encephaletic malaria, is a problem, and is chloroquine resistant in Niger[dead link]. Take your prophylaxes, use heavy-duty insect repellent (DEET is best, though nasty), and consider carrying a mosquito net to sleep under.
Giardia and amoebic dysentery are common. Be wary of any roadside food, unless you buy it hot off the grill. Even items fried in oil could make you sick if the oil has been heavily used and is old. Best to avoid salads and uncooked veggies. Also, never drink unfiltered water (including ice).
Schistosomiasis is present in most water bodies in Niger, so travellers should avoid going in the water everywhere — except chlorinated swimming pools.
In case you were unable to stay healthy, the Clinique Pasteur (situated in front of the Lycée Fontaine) has clean facilities, sterile needles, and competent, sympathetic doctors. The Clinique Gamkalley and many other clinics are around, however, you may need to watch out for dirty needles, over-prescription and aggressive staff.
Ramadan is the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar and lasts 29–30 days. Muslims fast every day for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) is supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Non-Muslims are exempt from this, but should still refrain from eating or drinking in public as this is considered very impolite. Working hours are decreased as well in the corporate world. Exact dates of Ramadan depend on local astronomical observations and may vary somewhat from country to country. Ramadan concludes with the festival of Eid al-Fitr, which may last several days, usually three in most countries.
If you're planning to travel to Niger during Ramadan, consider reading Travelling during Ramadan.
Visitors are treated as kings in Niger (there is a Koranic proverb to that effect), so be careful not to abuse the hospitality you will be shown. For the most part, try to accept all the small tokens and gestures (cokes, tea, small gifts, etc.) that are offered to you during your time in Niger. It really isn't good to refuse too much and don't think "these people are too poor to give me these things". That is offensive as taking good care of guests is a point of honour and gives people great pleasure.
Subjects (politics, religion, family) that are considered private in other parts of the world are discussed openly and freely in Niger.
When speaking to Nigeriens, make direct eye contact and try not to raise your voice.
Nigeriens are well aware of the fact that their country has a lot of issues and most Nigeriens are dissatisfied, angry, and frustrated with their government. There's nothing wrong with discussing politics so long as you approach the subject with respect and caution.
In the working world, money is one of the most important motivational factors. Given the extremely poor state of the Nigerien economy, many Nigeriens strive to make a lot of money to escape a life of hardship. This sadly is also one of the reasons why fraud and scams are common in the country.
Friendships and relationships are taken seriously in Niger. If someone does something for you, you're expected to return the favour. Not doing so is rude.
Dress conservatively, which means no shorts, no skirts above the knees, and no tank tops. For women, dressing revealingly can be seen as very offensive, even in Niamey. Also, dress nicely, as clothes determine how well you are treated back.
Islam is the dominant religion in the country and is practiced by virtually everyone. Ramadan is strictly observed. This being said, Niger is a secular state and the form of Islam practiced by the population is, by a long chalk, liberal. Niger is a rare example of religious tolerance; there are no sectarian tensions whatsoever. You're unlikely to offend a Nigerien by discussing religion — it's easy to talk about it openly.
Always ask people, especially camel drivers, market sellers, and the elderly, before taking a photograph. Many Nigeriens still find it offensive.
Slavery is still relatively common in the central areas, away from the towns. You can generally spot slaves by the unadorned, solid ankle bracelets on both feet, which look like manacles and may well serve that purpose. Unless you feel particularly brave, discussion of the subject with either victims or perpetrators is probably best avoided.
See the Friends of Niger website for discussion boards where you can ask questions before you go to Niger and maybe get some Nigeriens or others to fill you in.