directly-controlled area of the Qing Empire, renaming Ming Beizhili after Nanjing was no longer considered a southern capital

Zhili (Traditional Chinese: 直隸; Simplified Chinese: 直隶) was a province in northern China from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) until it was dissolved in 1928. It was one of the 18 provinces sometimes called China proper, and was named because the emperor or the central government exercised direct rule over the province.

After 1928, much of what had been Zhili became the province of Hebei. Other parts are now the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.

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