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Travel Warning WARNING: Chad has experienced several bouts of political turmoil and jihadist activity in the 21st century and, although the security situation has slowly improved since 2010, the governments of the UK, the U.S. and Canada advise against all but essential travel to Chad. Anywhere outside the capital, N'Djamena, is very dangerous, especially in the north and east—where special travel/movement permits are necessary. Travel overland between Chad and Sudan, South Sudan, the CAR, Niger, & Libya is dangerous and strongly discouraged. There is also a fairly high level of violent crime and the threat of terrorism in most parts of the country. Global Affairs Canada advises against all travel to the following areas: within 30 km of all international borders; the region of Lac; West of Mao in the region of Kanem; the regions of Sila, Wadi Fira, Ennedi and Tibesti; the region of Ouaddaï (except the town of Abéché); and the region of Borkou (except the town of Faya Largeau).
Government travel advisories
(Information last updated Feb 2018)

Chad (Arabic: تشاد, French: Tchad) is one of the poorest and most corruptly mis-governed countries in the world, with most of its inhabitants living in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.

It shares a short border with Nigeria and is landlocked in the Sahel, south of Libya, east of Niger and Cameroon, north of the Central African Republic, and west of Sudan.

Due to its distance from the sea and desert climate, Chad is sometimes described as the "Dead Heart of Africa".

RegionsEdit

 
Map of Chad with regions colour-coded
  Saharan Chad
The northern part of the country, which is also the driest.
  Sahelian Chad
The location of the capital, this region is the central part of Chad.
  Soudanian Chad
In the south (Soudanian) part of Chad, the climate is wetter.

CitiesEdit

  • 1 N'Djamena — the national capital
  • 2 Moundou
  • 3 Abéché
  • 4 Faya

UnderstandEdit

 
Capital N'Djamena
Currency Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Population 12.8 million (2013)
Electricity 220 volt / 50 hertz (Type D, Type E, Schuko, Europlug)
Country code +235
Time zone UTC+01:00
Driving side right
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HistoryEdit

For more than 2000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary peoples. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, known from artefacts and oral histories. The Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.

French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. The French primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service.

Fifteen thousand Chadian soldiers fought for Free France during WWII and after the war ended, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to both the French National Assembly, and to a Chadian assembly. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years later, Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. In 1965 Muslims began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975, but the insurgency continued. In 1979 the rebel factions conquered the capital, and all central authority in the country collapsed. The disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country, and a civil war in which the Libyans (unsuccessfully) became involved.

A semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks into eastern Chad. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss Deby won a referendum to remove constitutional term limits. In February 2008, an attempted coup rocked the capital.

 
Carpet weaving in Chad

ClimateEdit

Each year a tropical weather system known as the inter-tropical front crosses Chad from south to north, bringing a wet season that lasts from May to October in the south, and from June to September in the Sahel.

LandscapeEdit

The country's landscape comprises broad, arid plains in the centre, desert in the north, mountains in the northwest, and lowlands in the south. Lowest point: Djourab Depression (160 m/525 ft). Highest point: Emi Koussi (3,415 m/11,204 ft).

The dominant physical structure is a wide basin bounded to the north, east and south by mountain ranges such as the Ennedi Plateau in the north-east. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 km2 (205,000 mi2) of the Chadian Basin 7,000 years ago. Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 km2 (11,064 mi2), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations, the lake is Africa's second largest wetland.

Get inEdit

 
A map showing the visa requirements of Chad

VisaEdit

Citizens of the following countries do not require a visa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal.

For all others, a visa is necessary. A single-entry visa costs US$100 for 1 month and multiple-entry visas cost US$150 (3 months) or US$200 (6 months). A letter of invitation is required.

By planeEdit

 
A tribal delegation.

Air France has daily flights from Paris to N'Djaména. Ethiopia Airlines flies to Addis Ababa, Turkish airlines to Istanbul, Royal Air Maroc to Casablanca, Sudan Airways to Khartoum, Egypt Air to Cairo, and Camair-co to Douala.

By trainEdit

There are no usable rail links.

By carEdit

Libya "temporarily" closed its land border with Chad in December 2012. It is unclear when the border will reopen.

Roads are in disrepair and are typically unpaved - there is only one paved road, which runs from Massakory in the north through N'Djamena on to Guelendeng, Bongor, Kelo and Moundou. It is the best road in the country but still has numerous potholes and as it runs through the centre of a number of small villages, drivers should exercise caution and moderate speeds even while on the main road.

There are several border crossings with Cameroon, most notably via Kousseri near N'Djamena and near the towns of Bongor and Lere. Be very careful, drive defensively, and don't stop unless absolutely necessary. Do not drive at night, as coupeurs de route (road bandits) are common. They are a particular concern along the two roads leading out of Guelendeng, towards Ba-Illi (where expats were attacked in two separate incidents in 2005, resulting in the death of one Catholic nun) and towards Bongor.

By busEdit

 
Road bridge on Bragoto river

By boatEdit

It is impossible to reach Chad by boat unless crossing illegally through Lake Chad.

Get aroundEdit

 
Vehicle Registration Plate in Chad

TalkEdit

The main languages of Chad are Arabic and French. Few Chadians other than the educated and well-travelled speak literary Arabic, however; a dialect of Arabic known as "Chadian Arabic" is much more widely spoken and is the closest thing the country has to a trade language. Chadian Arabic is significantly different from Literary Arabic, but similar to the dialects of Sudan and Egypt. Literary Arabic speakers can typically understand Chadian Arabic but the reverse is not true. Over one hundred indigenous languages are also spoken.

SeeEdit

  • Oasis of Faya.
  • Lake Chad.
  • Ennedi Plateau.

DoEdit

 
Inside the crater of Emi Koussi.

Parc National de Zakouma

BuyEdit

MoneyEdit

Exchange rates for CFA francs

As of September 2018:

  • US$1 ≈ CFA570
  • €1 ≈ CFA660
  • UK£1 ≈ CFA740

Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com

The currency of the country is the Central African CFA franc, denoted FCFA (ISO currency code: XAF). It's also used by five other Central African countries. It is interchangeable at par with the West African CFA franc (XOF), which is used by six countries. Both currencies are fixed at a rate of €1 = 655.957 CFA francs.

There are no restrictions on bringing foreign currencies into Chad. Euros and US dollars are often accepted in payment. Chad is an expensive place compared to much of Africa.

ATMsEdit

There are Ecobank ATMs in Chad where you can get a cash withdrawal with a Master Card and Visa card. Look at the Ecobank website for a full list of locations.

 
A leather shop in Abeche.

EatEdit

Meat dishes are very popular in Chad, and foreigners speak highly of the meat. Lamb and camel meat are common and tasty. Food is usually eaten without utensils, and hand sanitizer may be a good precaution. Muslims find it offensive to eat with the left hand. If eating with or being served by Muslims in Chad, eat with your right hand only.

Follow common health travel guidelines concerning raw fruit and cooking requirements to avoid disease. The US State Department website has resources concerning safety while eating abroad.

DrinkEdit

SleepEdit

 
Women's house.

Years ago few hotels existed in Chad, but now N'Djamena hosts a myriad of affordable options. The Hotel N'Djamena, Radisson Blu Hotel, Mercure N'Djamena Le Chari, Ibis N'Djamena La Tchadienne, Ledger Plaza N'Djamena are some of the higher end hotels. Some Bed and Breakfast and budget minded hotels include the Shanghai Hotel, Hotel La Mirande Tchad, Hotel Gulf Club de Mara, Hotel Gueri, and the Asfa Hotel.

Stay safeEdit

Chad is consistently engulfed in political turmoil and attacks from rebels will probably not happen, but are certainly possible. The situation has stagnated, but it remains a threat. Violence from the Darfur conflict overspills into Eastern Chad from Sudan, a country which shares hostilities with Chad. Any activity outside of N'Djamena is done with difficulty at best. Northern Chad is barren, scorching desert and guides (good luck) and meticulous planning are required. In 2013, Boko Haram jihadists were spotted in Chad.

N'Djamena is relatively safe, although one should be wary of petty street crime and corrupt police/officials. Most border crossings are extremely difficult (Sudan and Libya not being viable options) although the border crossings with Niger and Cameroon are relatively painless.

Stay healthyEdit

Drink water brands you recognize from stores. Eat at restaurants recommended to you by friends and locals you trust. Eat food that has been freshly prepared and cooked well. If you are eating local dishes, make sure the food was freshly prepared, cooked well, and still warm from the grill or cooking pot. Wash your hands often.

Ensure your vaccinations are up to date before visiting Chad. The country is in the African Meningitis Belt, and there is a risk of polio.

RespectEdit

Ramadan

Ramadan is the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar and lasts 29–30 days. Muslims fast every day for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) is supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Non-Muslims are exempt from this, but should still refrain from eating or drinking in public as this is considered very impolite. Working hours are decreased as well in the corporate world. Exact dates of Ramadan depend on local astronomical observations and may vary somewhat from country to country. Ramadan concludes with the festival of Eid al-Fitr, which may last several days, usually three in most countries.

  • 6 May – 3 June 2019 (1440 AH)
  • 24 April – 23 May 2020 (1441 AH)
  • 13 April – 12 May 2021 (1442 AH)
  • 2 April – 1 May 2022 (1443 AH)

If you're planning to travel to Chad during Ramadan, consider reading Travelling during Ramadan.


There are 200 distinct ethnic groups. In the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad.

The Chadian-Libyan conflict is something to be avoided at all times; Chadians known to be living in Libya have been tortured and murdered on previous occasions.

ConnectEdit

This country travel guide to Chad is an outline and may need more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. If there are Cities and Other destinations listed, they may not all be at usable status or there may not be a valid regional structure and a "Get in" section describing all of the typical ways to get here. Please plunge forward and help it grow!