Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707) was the chief military engineer of the Sun King (Louis XIV of France). An expert in both the art of building and breaking fortifications, his concepts stood as the guidelines for fortifications for a century after his death. During his career spanning four decades, 37 new fortresses were built and around 300 upgraded under his supervision. In 2008, 12 of Vauban's fortifications were inscribed on the world heritage list.
- 4 City walls, Redoute des Salettes, Fort des Trois-Têtes, Fort du Randouillet, ouvrage de la communication Y and the Asfeld Bridge, Briançon.
- 7 Mont-Dauphin Place forte.
- 8 Mont-Louis Citadel and city walls.
- 9 Neuf-Brisach Fortification.
- 10 Saint-Martin-de-Ré City walls and citadel.
- 11 Watchtowers, Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue/Tatihou.
- 12 Villefranche-de-Conflent City walls, Fort Libéria and Cova Bastera.