- For other places with the same name, see Odesa (disambiguation).
Odesa, or Odessa (Ukrainian: Одеса; Russian: Одесса), is a seaport on the Black Sea coast of Ukraine. The city is home to over a million people (2015). Its chief attraction to visitors is the graceful old town, laid out on a grid pattern in the early 19th century, with its many churches, galleries and museums. There’s also a small beach resort. Reaching Bessarabia, and travel between Ukraine and Moldova or Romania, will usually involve a stopover in Odesa.
Odesa incorporates two other large ports, Yuzhne to the east and Chornomorske (formerly Illichivs'k) to the south. These have nothing of visitor interest, but Chornomorske is the terminal for Black Sea ferries.
"Odesa" is the spelling preferred by Ukrainians. While the Russian spelling, "Odessa", is commonly used in English, travelers should be aware that this may be offensive to Ukrainians because of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
There has been human settlement here since the earliest times; remains of a Hellenistic seaport circa 6th – 3rd century BCE are being excavated. In medieval times Crimea was an independent Tatar state, and in 1240 its Khan Hacı I Giray founded the settlement of "Hacıbey". This region later came under Lithuanian control, then was part of the Ottoman Empire between 1529 and 1792.
In the 18th century, under Empress Catherine the Great, Russia expanded rapidly south and came into conflict with the Ottoman Turks. The Ottomans were defeated in the wars of 1768-1774 and 1787-1792, and Russian control was cemented by the Treaty of Iaşi in 1792. The strategic value of this port was obvious - it had a huge productive hinterland, was ice-free, and gave access to the Black Sea and Mediterranean - and in 1794 the Empress founded the city and named it Odesa.
She had looked to her favourite, Potemkin, to develop this region, but he died in 1791 as did Catherine herself in 1796. The task fell instead to four foreigners: José de Ribas captured Hacıbey and convinced Catherine to develop it as a sea-port; the Duc de Richelieu was its first governor 1803-1814; the Count of Langeron, as a later governor, made it a free port; and Franz de Vollan laid out the city grid pattern, a novelty for its day.
From 1819 to 1858 Odesa was a free port. It boomed economically, becoming the fourth largest city of the Russian Empire, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. It was a magnet for labour, creativity and outcasts from elsewhere, becoming very cosmopolitan, with its architectural hodgepodge of Italianate, Renaissance, Neoclassic and Art Nouveau buildings. During the Soviet period, it was the USSR’s leading port, with exports of grain, long-distance oil pipelines, and related industries.
These industries continued after Ukraine’s independence in 1991, and Odesa was again declared a free port and free economic zone, as defined by the World Trade Organisation. Culturally and economically, however, the city has suffered from the turmoil within Ukraine and conflict with Russia, and the resulting collapse in tourism. Much of it is grubby and down-at-heel, and many of its fine city blocks are in serious disrepair. Ever since the annexation of the Crimean peninsula by Russia, however, Ukrainians flock to Odesa to soak in the summer sun at its sandy beaches while at the same time triggering redevelopment and building of new resorts and tourist facilities.
Ukrainian is the country's only official language; most people in Odesa speak it but their native language is Russian. Young people tend to know at least basic English; the more upmarket you go, the more fluent it gets. Almost all of the city's numerous colleges and universities teach Russian as a foreign language.
- 1 Odesa International Airport (in Ukrainian: Міжнародний аеропорт «Одеса», in Russian: Международный аэропорт «Одесса» ODS IATA) (7 km (4.3 mi) southwest of the city centre). There are two flights a day from Kyiv Boryspil KBP IATA and two from Kyiv Zhuliany IEV IATA; other domestic destinations will involve a change in Kyiv. There are daily flights from Moscow, Vienna Airport, Warsaw and Istanbul, and several per week from Athens, Baku, Batumi, Chisinau, Riga, Tbilisi, St Petersburg and Tel Aviv Ben Gurion. Departure (from Odesa) flight service is at the Old Building (next to trolleybus stop). Arrival flights use the terminal opened in 2017. Facilities here include currency exchange booths, several ATMs, airline reps, a café, information booth, and toilets.
Getting to town:
- Trolleybus 14 runs to the main railway station at Pryvoz, on the southern edge of the city centre (20-35 min, 5 грн) between 05:26 and 20:18, interval 15-17 min (Dec 2018). The trolleybus stop is to the right of the old terminal complex, behind the bus stop. Under the sign of trolley stop is placed a table showing the exact time departing from the airport.
- Marshrutka # 117 leaves every 10-30 min and goes right into the city centre (40 min, 5 грн, payment to the driver while exiting the bus). Go through the main exit door and turn right, you’ll see the trolley-bus wires and the minibus stop ahead (Apr 2018).
- You’ll also run the gauntlet of hungry taxi drivers asking silly prices. A ride downtown should not cost more than 100 грн, so keep walking firmly towards the minibuses until they match this.
From western and central Europe the simplest route is probably across Poland to Lviv. From Lviv there is a direct sleeper to Odesa (12 hr), otherwise travel via Kyiv (9 hr). Direct trains run between Odesa and Minsk (22 hr, not daily), Moscow (24 hr) and Saint Petersburg (30 hr, not daily). The train to Chisinau now only runs on Saturdays and Sundays, and crosses Transnistria. Trains towards Crimea, Sochi and the Caucasus are disrupted by border tensions.
Trains within Ukraine are cheap and comfortable, but slow and infrequent. From Kyiv to Odesa the quickest is the Inter-city, leaving at 16:40 and taking 7 hr, cost 550 грн. The other daytime train leaves around 10:00 and takes 10 hr, cost 400 грн. There’s also a sleeper leaving at 21:00, 9 hr. From Odesa to Kyiv the Inter-city departs at 05:45, then there’s nothing till the 15:40 train, reaching Kyiv just before 02:00. The northbound sleeper departs around midnight. Other connections exist, but they are likely to involve changing trains in the small hours in the middle of nowhere.
Other destinations within Ukraine with at least daily direct service in summer include Kharkiv 15 hr, Lviv 12 hr, Chernivtsi 18 hr, Ivano-Frankivsk 17 hr, Khmelnytskyi 8 hr, Kovel 16 hr, Uzhhorod 19 hr, Vinnytsya 5 hr, and Zaporizhia 16 hr.
Trains are less frequent outside summer. For overall route planning and current timetables, the easiest website to navigate is Deutsche Bahn. To buy tickets within Ukraine, visit www.uz.gov.ua and remember to use Ukrainian spelling, e.g. “Odesa” and “Kyiv”. Booking online is strongly recommended as it will save hassle trying to negotiate your journey at a crowded foreign railway station. Inter-city e-tickets should be printed at home and are good to go, other sales are just a voucher which must be exchanged for a ticket before travel, at any mainline station within Ukraine.
All trains terminate at the main station, 2 Odesa Hlavnaya, in the Pryvoz area of town next to the bus stations and market. Ticket desks are obvious in the main hall, and any desk will exchange e-vouchers for tickets. Come at a quiet time and the place is relaxed and helpful, just watch out before queuing for the “technical break” times posted on each window. Turn up 15 minutes before the weekend express departs and it’s all a bit chaotic.
If you don’t care for what’s on offer at the café or currency exchange, stroll across the street to the bus stations, where there’s lots more. Pryvoz market is handy for stocking up for a long journey. Lots of marshrutkas and taxis outside, the centre is a 2-km walk north.
There are two main bus stations. Pryvoz, next to the railway station, is mainly for shorter trips, but long-distance services increasingly run from here. The Central Bus Station, 2 km west so it isn’t central, traditionally had most of the long-distance routes.
Pryvoz Bus Station is really stations, plural; it’s a confusing jumble so you may have to hunt back and forth for your departure point. The original core of it is on Vul Vodoprovodna, 300 m west of the train station and adjacent to the market. Small buses and marshrutkas head to regional destinations such as Mykolayiv, Vylkovo and Belgorod Dnestrovsky every hour or two. They also run to Moldova, some directly through Tiraspol in Transnistria but most via Bessarabia and the Palanca border post. Odesa to Chişinău takes about 6 hr depending on border hold-ups and costs 350 грн each way.
This original station is too cramped for big modern coaches, so it’s extending east in a new but haphazard collection of coach stops all the way to the railway station. There’s no centre to this or signage, just ask anyone who seems to be waiting with luggage. Ecolines buses run from Starosennaya ploshchad (square) to Kyiv (7 hr), Minsk (21 hr), Moscow (24 hr), St Petersburg (30 hr), to the Baltic States, Poland and west Europe. Find timetables at www.ecolines.net. Autolux buses also run from here to Kyiv and direct to Boryspil Airport, 7 hr. Their website autolux.ua is only in Russian and Ukrainian, so you need a Cyrillic keyboard to use it.
Central Bus Station is at 58 Vul Kolontayivskoi, 2 km further west. Traditionally this was the departure point for long-distance coaches, but timetables indicate these nowadays mostly depart from Pryvoz, as coach stands there have expanded. Check your ticket carefully for where you ought to be.
The main highways are mostly in good condition and well-signposted, with adequate filling stations. With your own car, if you see traffic braking ahead of you, slow down, it's either a speed bump, pothole or police trap. You can cycle - the going is level - but it won't be fun, and unsafe at night.
Hitchhiking is also an option, see page on Ukraine: getting around.
There are ferries several times a week to Batumi and Poti in Georgia (48 hr), and to Istanbul Haydarpasa in Turkey (27 hr). For schedules, prices and tickets see www.ukrferry.com. The ferries run all year and take vehicles; indeed trucking is an important part of their business, as so many travellers nowadays fly. This network of ferries serves other Black Sea ports (eg Sochi, Samsun, Varna & Constanta) but usually without direct sailing to Odesa.
The ferry terminals are at Chornomorske (formerly Illichivs'k) 20 km SW of Odesa, on the NE bank of the river. Reach them by marshrutka from central Odesa.
The north end of the central city grid is compact and parts are pedestrianised, so enjoy it on foot. Most of the main sights are here.
It's too far to walk from the centre to the beach or airport, or to the bus and railway stations if you've much luggage.
The city public transport consists of trams, trolleybuses and marshrutkas. Trams and trolley-buses are the cheapest, they cost 5 грн (Dec 2019), but can get very crowded - especially tram 5 to the beach. The stops don't indicate routes or schedules, so you'll just have to stand and wait hopefully. Usually there's a conductor on board who'll collect your money and issue your ticket & change; there's no system of pre-purchase or of validating the ticket, unlike Kyiv. If there's no conductor, pay the driver on exit.
One of the tram routes, with tourists can find useful is number 5. It runs from the bus station area to the Arcadia Area, passing "Starokonny Rynok" (knows for flea markets), Moldavanka area, Privoz Market, Railway Station, Musical Comedy Theater, and many of the city beaches on its route.
Passengers of route 5 can transfer to a trolleybuses of route 5, 7, 9, which will take them to the city center; trolleybus 10 to seaport area, and trolleybus 14 to airport. It's also possible to transfer on trams of routes 3, and 12 at the Preobrazhenskaya street stops which will take a tourist to Deribasovskaya street.
Transferring on routes 10, or 21 take tourist all the way to Tiraspolskaya square transport hub which is still close to Deribasovskaya street.
Trams 3 and 12, can be even more useful for tourists. They run all the way of Preobrazhenskaya Street, which in one of the major transport arteries of Odesa. On their route, they pass by Deribasovskaya Street, Gorodskoy Sad, Sobornaya Ploschad' (Cathedral Square) Tiraspolskaya Ploschad' tram hub, (transfer for routes 10,15,21) and Privoz Market area. Then route 3 switches east to Railway Station, and its route still continues, while route 12 turns west to Moldavanka section of Odesa. En route, this line crosses a few trolleybus routes, which run through city center.
Because those routes are highly demanded, they are often overcrowded.
Route 28 runs the same was as route 5 in city center, however passing the Theater of Musical Comedy, it runs North toward Schevchenko Park, and Lanzheron Beach. In Moldavanka, it uses different route toward different terminal than tram 5.
Marshrutkas are the main mode of transport, as they cover a lot more ground. A ride usually costs 7 грн (Dec 2019), pay the driver when you get off. They pick up anywhere (wave your hand) and set down anywhere (holler to the driver).
Routes and times are listed on this website.
You don't really want a car in central Odesa. But finding your way around isn't difficult because of the grid system, and the main streets are clearly signed, your main concern will be security and parking. Check ahead for options with your hotel, they may have their own. Parking is permitted except where specifically restricted. You may be approached by a guy demanding 5-10 грн - pay up cheerfully, and think of him as security rather than parking attendant.
Note the roadworks mentioned above, with congestion and diversions.
The easiest way to get a taxi is to install one of many apps available. The easiest one for a foreigner will be Uber, but it costs 30-40% more than local-based alternatives. The best ones are: Shark Taxi, Taxi Bond. Taxi Bond has premium cars and the car will arrive faster.
Most taxis in Odesa are operated as "car-calling services". So you have to call the number and the car will come for you. Some of the numbers for the taxi are:
- Taxi "Pantera-Express" +380 (482) 342000
- "Euro-Taxi" +380 (48) 777-4-555, +380 (482) 333-400
- Taxi "Prometey" +380 (482) 355355
- Taxi Optimalne, +380 93 332 4444 (mobile)
The phone operators might not at all speak English, so try at your own risk or ask your Ukrainian friends to call a taxi for you. The usual price for the taxi is from 50 to 100 грн, sometimes up to 120-200 грн if you travel to the outskirts of the city.
The alternative taxi option is to raise your hand on the crowded street and wait for a taxi to stop. You need to understand the majority of taxis in Odesa are not marked in any taxi colors. There is also a long-time tradition of "carpooling" for money, you raise and wave your hand on the street and any car can stop and ask you where you want to go and how much are you willing to pay. Many drivers thus can save some money on their way to work, or even earn some extra money in their free time. It is usually quite safe, although, as always, exercise caution, always negotiate the fee beforehand and remember that people may try to rip you off because you are foreigners and if you do not speak the local language.
The core of Odesa, with all the main sights, is the city grid stretching from Pryvoz in the south to the Potemkin Steps in the north, and with the 2-km-long Vul Yekaterynynska (Catherine Street) as its spine. You’ll probably arrive in Pryvoz as all modes of transport funnel into here. This area is grubby but sights include the 1 Pryvoz market (next to the bus station) and the Panteleymonivska monastery (just head for the huddle of onion domes). Spare a look for the railway station even if you’re not travelling by rail. There are eating places and decent accommodation nearby, handy for late-night arrivals or early departures.
Head north along any of the main streets, and for the first km you’ll wonder why you bothered coming; then after Vul Zhukovskoho the prospect improves. Another couple of blocks and at last you see the grandeur wrought by all those 19th-century entrepreneurs. But much of it has been neglected since independence, so even on the finest avenues there is dereliction and decay.
For a pleasant walking circuit, start from the magnificent rebuilt Orthodox Cathedral on Soborna Sq, and drift north through the City Gardens into Havanna St. Bear left into Gogol St, where Gogol's own house, number 11, is yet another sad example of dereliction in an otherwise upmarket avenue. This brings you onto the pedestrianised promenade. It’s not on the shore, but beyond here the land falls away steeply, and there are views over the docks and sea. Turn right and cross 1 Tyoschin Bridge (Mother-in-law bridge), the footbridge over the valley that descends to the docks. On the other side, try to ignore the kitsch cod-Grecian pillars, but admire 2 Vorontsov Palace (now a performance space, so look artistic yet not too weird, the babushka will probably let you in). Continue along Primorskiy Boulevard to the 3 statue of the Duc de Richelieu, in a toga yet, at the head of the Potemkin Steps. Continue to the end of the boulevard and you'll see the city hall. Turn inland and a short block brings you to the Opera House on Lanzheronivska St. Return to your starting point either along this street or adjacent Deribasovskaya St, which has most of the cafes and restaurants. This walk is especially charming early evening, when the fine façades still show their colours and the tumbledown bits are softened by dusk.
Houses of worshipEdit
- 4 St. Paul’s Lutheran Cathedral (Kirche), Novosels’koho 68. Built in 1824, reopened in 1897. Accommodates up to 1,200. The new cathedral promises to be a much needed centre for Odessa’s Lutheran and German communities.
- 5 Central Synagogue, Yevreiska 25. Su-F 07:00-19:00. Built 1850, rebuilt in 1996. Sights: A mikvah (a pool used for ritual purification), bimah (altar). Houses the office of Odesa Region’s Chief Rabbi Shlomo Baksht. Library: offers an impressive selection of Jewish books and films, English-speaking staff.
- 6 Odesa Orthodox Cathedral (Spaso Preobrazhensky’s Kathedralny Sobor, Оде́ський Спа́со-Преображе́нський кафедра́льний собо́р), Sobornaya ploshchad', 3, ☏ . Is dedicated to the Saviour's Transfiguration and belongs to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate). This is a replica of the first and foremost church in the city of Odesa. The original building was founded in 1794 by Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni and constructed by the Italian architect, Francesco Frappoli. This is the largest of Odesa’s Orthodox cathedrals and was one of the Russian Empire’s grandest. The cathedral was designated the main church of New Russia in 1808 and was continuously expanded throughout the 19th century. The bell tower was built between 1825 and 1837, and the refectory connecting it to the main church several years later. The cathedral bells are controlled by an electronic device capable of playing 99 melodies. The interior was lined with polychrome marble, and the icon screen also was of marble. Several churches in the region, including the Nativity Cathedral in Chişinău, were built in conscious imitation of the Odessa church. The cathedral was the burial place of the bishops of Tauride (including Saint Innocent of Kherson) and Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, the famous governor of 'New Russia'. In the 1930s church was demolished by the communists and the graves were destroyed. In 1999, reconstruction began, and the reborn church was consecrated in 2003. Capacity: 12,000. At the cathedral square there is an old monument of Mikhail Vorontsov.
Odesa’s museums and galleries have staggered closing days, so you don’t have the “Monday problem” common in many European cities, with everything shut. However there’s not much labelling in English. If an afternoon deciphering Cyrillic labels feels like hard work, your best bet is the Museum of Western and Eastern Art.
- 7 Alexander Pushkin museum, vul Pushkinska 13, ☏ . M-F 10:00–17:00. Visitors to this museum will become acquainted with the adventures of Odesa’s most famous short term resident: the esteemed Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. The museum displays original manuscripts from Pushkin's writings, and a copy of a page from his book Eugene Onegin. The museum is in an apartment were Pushkin lived in 1823. It was opened in June 1961. 6 грн.
- 8 Archaeological Museum, Lanzheronivs’ka,4. Tu-Su 10:00-17:00. Founded in 1883. An impressive exhibit of the Tripolye, Chernyakhovo and other ancient cultures. Ancient sarcophaguses and the rich collections of jewellery. It is one of the oldest archaeological museums in Ukraine and the post-Soviet countries which was founded in 1825. Since 1997 Odesa archaeological museum functions not only as a museum but also as institute of scientific research. The major directions of scientific research of Odesa museum are: archaeology of primitive society in Northern Black Sea region, archaeology of the Middle Ages. The museum conducts expositions, restorations and publishing activities.The museums possesses more than 160,000 exhibits: archaeological finds of The Black Sea Northern region, the largest in Ukraine collection of Ancient Egypt (sarcophagi, stone slabs with hieroglyphics and fragments of papyrus, funeral inventory); Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome exhibits. The museum is also famous by its collection of coins and medals. There are over 50,000 coins in the museum treasury: Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Byzantine Empire, Ancient Kievan Rus, coins of Russian Empire Romanovs' dynasty. 18 грн, Excursion 40 грн.
- 9 Bleschunov Collection, Polska.19. 10:00-18:00. This museum/apartment was the former residence of the alpinist and collector Alexander Bleschunov. Fascinating exposition of various collections of art, relics and crafts. 5 грн.
- 10 Filiki Etheria, Chervonyi prov. 20. M-F 10:00-17:00. A branch of the Regional History. These buildings used to belong to Greeks, and in 1814 functioned as their secret meeting place
- 11 Museum of Western and Eastern Art (Fine Art Museum, Muzey Zapadnogo i Vostochnogo Iskusstva), Sofiivs’ka 5A. W-M 10:30-17:30. In the former private residence of Count Pototsky, (1899). 26 halls - from ancient icons to modern art. You can see paintings by Aivazovsky and other famous artists. 50 грн for classic collection, 20 грн for modern section.
- Modern Art (MoMA), Sabans’kyi prov. 4A, ☏ . M Tu Th 12:00-19:00, Sa 12:00-18:00. Painters from Odesa at the turn of 20th and 21st centuries.
- Nicolas Roerich House, Velyka Arnautska 47, room 2. 11:00–19:00. Founded in 2000. Reproductions of work by the adventurer, philosopher and Nobel Prize nominated artist Nicolas R.- 5 halls, art albums and Svetoslav’s portraits. Free.
- 12 Numismatics Museum (Одеський музей нумізматики), Grecheskaya or Hretska, (вул. Грецька), 33. Tu-Sa 12:00–16:00. The museum has another branch at 5 Catherine's Sq. — Exhibition of ancient and medieval coins, old and modern Ukrainian banknotes; antique pottery of the Northern Black Sea region and fine art of Kievan Rus'. - Coin Gallery (Монетный двор, "Monetny dvor"; literally "Monetary Court" — Exhibition of modern coins and monetary tokens of Ukraine, over 2500 coins and other relics from different historical eras: from antiquity and the Middle Ages to modern times including the period of the formation of the modern Ukrainian state. The core of the collection is a collection of ancient coins minted by various city states, and especially of the Bosporan Kingdom which existed in the Northern Black Sea Region for almost a thousand years. Among them are many unique and rare coins of great scientific interest. Besides the numismatic exhibition, the Museum collection includes many other ancient Ukrainian historical artifacts: antique ceramics and items of ancient Russian fine art. Medieval small art plastics of Kievan Rus' form the separate museum's collection reflecting the diversity of the kinds of ancient Ukrainian arts and crafts in their historical development: from pieces of ornamental and decoration dating from the Pre-Christian period of Kievan Rus (pendants, broaches, amulets, signet rings) to the antiquities of the Christian Epoch (icons, crosses, cross - amulets). Metal breast plates with the Princely heraldry of Rurik dynasty (two-prong and trident) are very rare and have a special interest for Ukrainian historians.The small but representative collection of antique pottery reveals information about the variety of utensils used by the early inhabitants of the Northern Black Sea region and the development of pottery manufacturing. Free.
- Waxworks, Rishel’ievs’ka 4. 09:00–21:00. Consists of 26 waxy individuals. 30 грн.
- 13 Museum of Literature, Lanzheronivs’ka 2 (at the very beginning of Lanzheronovskaya street.). Tu-Su 10:00–17:00.. Features a 100-year-walk through the history of Odesa in literature. As you stroll the museum’s halls, silent portraits. Small modern sculptures on museum’s courtyard. 20 грн.
- 14 Maritime Museum (just between the Opera House and Literature museum.). Houses a history of Marine Fleet.
- 15 Odesa Museum of Regional History, Havanna 4. In a 19th-century mansion. Exhibition about Odesa region from 14th century to the present. Sa-Th 10:00-16:30. Established in 1956, describes the history of region from the Dark Ages (from the 12th century) to present days. Has a few exhibitions and present halls. In the center of the city, in the former palace of Novikov.
- 16 Odesa Art Museum (at the very beginning of Sofievskaya Street). Once a palace of Prince Pototskiy, features a huge collection of Russian artist paintings.
- 17 Museum of the Cinema, 33 French Boulevard. With more than 10,000 works on display, the museum is a testimony to the history and cinematic activity in Odesa. Here you can find historic materials, from the invention of cinema, to the postmodern, digital and avant-garde.
- Walk the old town. As well as the circuit described above under "see", the attractive streets also branch west, along Sofia and Pastura Streets.
- 1 Opera House. Go to the opera house for US$20 or less. You can get very good tickets already for 100 грн, don't buy the cheaper ones because of restricted visibility. The Odesa opera was called "the best opera in the world" by Ferdinand Fellner, and it's definitely a must-see in Odesa.
- 2 Odesa Philharmonic, Bunina street. Go for a concert to the beautiful historic building of National Philharmonic Theatre. The tickets from 80 грн.
- 3 Dolphinarium Nemo. Mainly a paradise for children, but also for adults if you are a fan of these majestic marine mammals. The tickets for the show with dolphins cost 100 грн, and you can buy also the swimming with dolphins or dolphinotherapy (more costly). It is on the beach Lanzheron, take the tram No. 28, or trolleybus No. 2, and then walk to the right.
- 4 Museum of Partisan Glory and Catacombs, ☏ . Odesa's underground is perforated with one of the biggest catacomb systems of the world. More than 2000 km underground tunnels in several layers cover all the area below and around the city. In former times it saved as a quarry, so the limestone taken from the catacombs was used to build up the historical buildings on the surface. Later it became a hideout for dubious activities and for partisans in Second World War. The museum can only be visited with guided tours.
Most of the city waterfront, except the port territory, forms a beach zone. All of the beaches are located at the eastern edge of Odesa. The most popular beaches are the following: listed according to their distance from city center.
- Lanzheron - is closest to the city centre, located just underneath the Shevchenko Park. Reachable by tram #28, as well as by trolleybuses #2 or #3, then a short walk is needed. The dolphinarium is located nearby.
- Otrada - is slightly farther from the city centre than Lanzheron. It is the closest to the centre among the beaches located under the French Parkway (Francuzskij bul'var). Otrada is easily reachable by tram #5, 3 stops from the railway station and 5 stops from the intersection with Preobrazhenskaya Street, which is the major transportation artery of the city centre.
- Dolphin - is in 3 more tram stops past Otrada.
- Chkalovski - two nudist beaches located between Dolphin and Arcadia, near the Chkalovski sanatorium. The smaller first one is wildish with strange bathers and lots of rocks. The second, 500 m further on, is bigger and frequented by many families with a nicer atmosphere. Little sand, mainly pebbles.
- Malibu - is a beach at Luzanovka neighborhood, easily reachable by numerous bus routes which link the city centre with the Poselok Kotovskogo section of Odesa. Malibu is the cleanest beach on the sea shore with excellent service similar to ones in Arcadia.
- 5 Arcadia. Arcadia the most popular beach and tourist place with lots of restaurants, bars, discos, night clubs and other entertainment. It's home of the upscale nightlife in summer. Even though it is farther then Otrada and Dolphin, it is easily reachable from centre. Arcadia is the last stop of tram #5, and of trolleybuses #5 and #13. Both tram and trolleybus #5 go towards the city centre passing the railway station. Trolleybus #5 goes into the heart of Odesa.
Go to the Privoz market by the station - one of the biggest in the ex-USSR. Lots of cheap vegetables and fruits. Try the pakhlava - the Ukrainian pronunciation of baklava.
Be aware, if you're going to buy anything but food in the market (and sometimes with food also), that Odesa is significantly harder in bargaining than anywhere in Russia or Ukraine. Prices several times the regular price without any signs of trying to budge is often, moreover, unlike most bargaining places sellers would often be unfriendly. The tactic extends to anyone not from Odesa, so having a Russian-speaking guide from elsewhere may not help.
Check Flea Market - on Moldavanka district, around "Starokoniy rinok" located huge flea market. Simple people sale here old knick-knacks and trinkets. Here you can buy an original souvenir of the Soviet era like postcards, military stuff etc. The market is only open on Saturdays and Sundays in the morning. It is customary to bargain here, although experienced traders will not be able to significantly reduce the price. At the same time, some rare things can be bought very cheaply.
There are lots of cafes and restaurants in Odesa, with more and more opening each year. The prices are quite affordable, if you come from the west. Expect to pay 70-100 грн for a lunch in a cafe and around 200 грн in a restaurant. Some restaurants can be of course very expensive, so take a look at the menu before ordering. In the warmer times of the year you can find lots of outdoor sitting areas in the cafes, with blankets usually available to keep you warm in the evening.
The 'fast food' on the street is tasty and if you don't speak Russian or read Cyrillic is much more accessible as you can just point at what it is you want. Menus are usually only in Russian, but you may try to ask for an English menu for you (ask in Russian for "menu po angliyski"). If they don't have one, either have an idea of what you want before you sit down or be prepared to randomly pick something from the menu. It's possible that waitresses can also speak basic English, try to ask for recommendations.
Food from street vendors, especially at the open air markets, should be approached with the same caution as you would display anywhere. It can be fantastic, or not. There are many supermarkets in Odesa that have high quality foods that you can buy as an alternative. There are several McDonald's restaurants in the city (str. Deribasovskaya 23, Privokzalnaya square 1a).
Generally, if you're looking for a place to eat, try to pick one in the city center that looks nice but not too expensive. There are lots of places for what could be called "middle class" with enjoyable atmosphere and good food, but random picking can of course lead to bad food and bad service.
- Tavernetta. New Italian restaurant with delicious home made pasta on Ekaterinska street.
- Pivnoy Sad. Very cosy restaurant, actually a brewery, set in City Garden. Plus excellent live music if you're lucky enough and you don't get the local radio.
- Olio Pizzeria. Nice pizzeria with pleasant design in the very heart of the city. Good prices, pizzas from 100 грн.
- Kompot, Deribasovskaya 20. 08:00-23:00. Good food and very nice decoration. Sit upstairs if you can. They also have tables outside.
Avoid eating Oriental or Indian in Odesa. They mostly don't have good cooks, the food you get is not authentic and priced heavily.
The beer served in the south of Ukraine is outstanding and goes excellently with the hearty food. A beer in a restaurant will usually cost around US$2-3 for local beers and US$4-6 for imported brands. There are several breweries in the area nearby Odesa, but they are usually not very popular in the restaurants. However, there is a small restaurant-brewery right in the "City Garden" near Deribasovskya, their beer is rather good and they have an English menu. Just look for a sign that says Hausbrauerei (German for Home Brewery) and tell them you just want to have a drink at the bar unless you want to have dinner there of course.
Long-lasting traditions of wine production in neighbouring Moldova and Crimea make Odesa an excellent place for wine lovers. Must taste: Negro de Purcari, Pino and famous sweet Kagor from Moldova, Massandra Portwine and Muscat from Crimea.
In the big supermarkets and in shops with alcoholic drink specialization you can find a full assortment of alcoholic drinks from beer to absinthe and from local brands to world famous brands.
In non-alcoholic drinks here is a large quantity of various brands (foreign: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Fanta, Sprite, BonAqua etc.; national: Obolon', Bon-Boisson, Prem'era, Kuyal'nik, etc.; local: Kristall, Green Star, Dana, etc.).
The nightlife of Odesa in summer is concentrated in the 'Arcadia' district, some 8 km away from the city center. In Odesa you have to pay to enter a club, the rates are around 70-80 грн as of June 2011, but can be higher in particular clubs. A taxi to Arkadia should cost 40-50 грн; beware of the taxi drivers who are waiting for you when you leave Arkadia at night, their tariffs are super-high and they can be rude and intimidating. Call a taxi or walk 500 meters further where you can negotiate a much lower price. To get from Arkadia at night to the central part of the city would be 40-60 грн, to Tairovo or Cheremushki - 70 грн.
- 1 Club Ibiza, Arcadia. Big club in the center of Arcadia. Cover charge 200 грн on weekends, 50 грн on weekdays, draft beer 35 грн.
- 2 Club Itaka, Arcadia. Big competitor of Ibiza and on a par with it. They also have a separate dance floor for 1980s and 1990s music next to the beach. Cover charge 200 грн on weekends, 50 грн on weekdays, draft beer 35 грн.
- Captain Morgan, 30, Zhukovskogo str. One of the only 'clubs' in the city centre in summer. Good for a drink, but go to Arcadia for the real parties. Cover charge 50 грн, draft beer 25 грн.
- Club Flirt Marshala Govorova 10/2 str. & Ekaterininska 32 str. Strip club.
Accommodation is plentiful in Odesa and ranges from renting a small room from a local resident to registered hostels, to the more expensive hotels. But "expensive" is a relative term - with online booking and avoiding peak periods, you can enjoy top accommodation here for less than you'd pay for a chain hotel in the English Midlands.
If you enter by train you will be immediately approached by one of the many locals in an attempt to get you to rent a room from them. This may end up being a small not so well constructed (but basically clean) one room structure located in their garden. It may also not come with a shower with running water, instead consisting of a small outdoor cabinet with a tank located above it that your host will fill with hot water upon request. Additionally the local accommodation will most likely have a squat toilet. For those uncomfortable with using a squat toilet the facilities at the McDonald's near the train station make for a good substitute. Nobody speaks English or German (even the most basic talk). This makes the negotiations very difficult! In July/August most budget hotels are fully booked. The total price for your garden residency will usually not exceed US$10 and in the summer it is more than sufficient. The hostels in the city can be booked online or try your luck and just drop in.
- E & N Hostel, firstname.lastname@example.org (from the Central Station - find Pushkinskaya and walk towards the sea. Enter the gate at number 24 and all the way in. Turn left), ☏ . Check-in: 12:00, check-out: 12:00. from €10 or 110 грн.
- 1 Mini Hostel Odessa, 24 Dvoryanska Street, Apt. 7, ☏ , email@example.com. Check-in: 24/7. Cheap, safe and secure hostel in the centre of Odessa. Free Wi-Fi, lockers, linen, coffee and tea. English-speaking reception 24/7. Guests of the Mini Hostel Odessa get a discount if they stay in the Mini Hostel Kiev or the Mini Hostel Lviv. Dorm beds from €5, private room €19.
- TIU Front Page Hostel, 42 Kobleskaya St, Top floor, ☏ , , firstname.lastname@example.org. Check-in: 24/7. Large centrally located backpacker/traveller hostel. Safe and secure. Large kitchen & common areas. Free WiFi, lockers, linen, coffee/tea. 3 showers and 3 WCs. Hot water. English speaking reception, all year. Dorm beds from €11, private room €35.
- Zirka Hotel, 70 Uspenskaya St, ☏ , fax: , email@example.com. Check-in: 12:30, check-out: 12:00. Economy rooms have no windows, just 'artificial light'. Many clients book rooms for an hour or two in the late evening, so expect to see prostitutes entering around midnight and leaving soon after. US$25 - double room.
- «Black Sea» Rishelievskaya («Black Sea» Rishelievskaya), 59, Rishelievskaya str., ☏ , fax: , firstname.lastname@example.org. Check-in: 12:00, check-out: 12:00. From 500 грн.
- «Black Sea» Panteleymonovskaya («Black Sea» Panteleymonovskaya), 25, Panteleymonovskaya str. (Street frontage is small, take the lift to Reception on 7th floor), ☏ , fax: , email@example.com. Check-in: 14:00, check-out: 12:00. handy for late-night arrival at Pryvoz From 500 грн.
- «Black Sea» Otrada («Black Sea» Otrada), 1A, Vice-Admiral Azarov str., ☏ , fax: . Check-in: 14:00, check-out: 12:00. From 600 грн.
- «Black Sea» Oktyabrskaya («Black Sea» Oktyabrskaya), 31, Kanatnaya str., ☏ , fax: . Check-in: 14:00, check-out: 12:00.
- Hotel OK Odessa (South of center but close to the beach. Tram #5 travels from the main bus station past the train station roundabout to Arcadia, right by the hotel). From 370 грн - up to 2800 грн.
- St. Paul Church House, Novoselskogo, 68, ☏ , fax: , firstname.lastname@example.org. A house operated by the German Lutheran Church in Odesa. They rent nice rooms to travelers, when they are not occupied by visitors of the church. Double room: €40.
- Apart-hotel Poseidon, s. Burlacha Balka, Chernomorskaya Doroga 2A, ☏ , , email@example.com. Check-in: 14:00, check-out: 12:00. The hotel is on the Black Sea, 30 meters from the water. 10 categories of apartments and rooms From 900 грн.
- Arkadia Plaza, Posmitnoho 1. Room 1500-1750 грн, suite 3420-6501 грн.
- 2 Bristol, Pushkins‘ka 15. Built in 1899 Standard €240, superior €290, junior suite €465, suite €620-800, Presidential suite €1100.
- Continental, Deribasivs‘ka 5. Mid-19th-century bldg. Economy 1550 грн, standard 2470 грн, suite 3080-4460 грн, apt 6735 грн.
- London, Uspens‘ka 95. Room 1350-1450, suite 1700-1980 грн, duplex apt 5290 грн.
- 3 Londonskaya, Prymors‘kyi bul‘v. 11. splendid old pile on the prom Standard €130; superiors €180; suites €290, €380, €575.
- Morskoy, Kryshtalevyi prov. 1/1. Standard 1912 грн, superior 2232 грн, junior suite 3032 грн, suite 3512 грн, apt 4312-6136 грн.
- Mozart, Lanzheronivska 13. Suites 3350 грн, apartments 4000 грн.
- Otrada, Ujutnaya (ул. Уютная), 11, ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. Standard 1661 грн, superiors 2070 грн, junior suites 3100 грн, suites 4521 грн, apt 6800 грн.
- Villa Venezia, Kamanina 16. Standard 790 грн, junior suite 970 грн.
Apart from being known as a touristic city near the seaside, Odesa is also known as a city that was home to a school of pickpockets. Neverthless, there are still 'szahrayka' (groups of criminals) at work. They work in groups of two or more, mostly standing close together in crowded places (tram 5 is a quite a popular place). Usually, one of them distracts the victim while the other ones steal his/her valuables. Stay alert, don't get confused and hold your wallet, phone and passport tightly.
If you have lost anything, report and restrict everything that has been stolen as fast as possible. If this is ID and bank cards, you need to lock a card first and then restrict ID with your banks. If there was also a phone, lock in that order: card, phone, ID. If you had automatic fill-up of sections, change the passwords for your e-mails and other sites. Then, find your consulate, go there and fill the form for stolen ID or passport. You can ask for a temporary passport there as well.
Always carry your passport (or a good colour photocopy) with you. The police in Odesa, as in all of Ukraine, are corrupt and constantly on the lookout for tourists to harass with the aim of fining them for breaking some imagined rule or law. Use common sense and caution around rowdy groups and drunks in city, unless you speak good Russian.
Be very careful in the Arkadia district at night, as it might be not safe in the darker areas. Arkadia is an area with many night clubs. Since these clubs attract visitors, scammers lurk around the neighborhood. Try to be with someone who knows the clubs and the places and speaks Russian.
Male travelers should be aware of clip-joint scams, usually being approached by one or two female suggesting going to Palladium night club, which has been known to extort foreign men using violence over overpriced alcohol or drinks that were or never ordered. Local police are paid off on this and there will be no help if you are to be cornered in such clubs.
Women on Tinder and Badoo (Ukrainian popular) are often semi-professional prostitutes who, even when not working for clip joints, still earn commissions by luring foreigners into buying drinks at legitimate cafe establishments. Always be on high alert and do not go along to their suggested place.
There are also shell game scams on the main pedestrian Derybasivska street (вулиця Дерибасівська).
By the City Park, Potemkin Stairs and Opera House, avoid the pigeon men. They will either have on their arms or a nearby pole multiple pigeons and try to encourage you to have your photo taken with them for an ever escalating fee.
- Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Akkerman Fortress), frequent bus (line 560), 2 hours. Most buses also stop in Shabo (famous wine).
- The other must-see destinations within Ukraine are Kyiv and Lviv, both about 9 hr by train.
- Nearly all buses from Odesa to Kyiv (350-450 грн ticket) make a stop at the small town of Uman, which is 273 km from Odesa. The place is famous thanks to a huge National Park - Sofia (Sofiyivka Park), and also for the tomb of the Chasidic Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.
- For Moldova, take a marshrutka from Pryvoz bus station, say 6 hr. Mostly these run via the Palanca border post to avoid crossing Transnistria. However in summer 2017 this area was calm, and traffic was passing freely on the direct road Odesa-Tiraspol-Bender-Chişinău.
- For Romania, the simplest route is to Chişinău, then by bus or train to Bucharest. An alternative, especially if you want to explore the Danube delta, is to take a bus or marshrutka to Reni. This is about 5 km from the Moldovan border at Giurgiuleşti - if you're lucky the bus-driver might continue to the border for a few more hryvnia. Walk across the border into Moldova, get your passport stamped, then walk or hitch 2 km through Moldova to the border with Romania. Galati, the first town in Romania, is another 8 km.
- Crimea was a popular next destination, but has been under Russian control since its seizure and annexation in 2014. Public transport is suspended and travel warnings have been issued by most Western nations.