- For other places with the same name, see Luxembourg (disambiguation).
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg), is a landlocked Benelux country at the crossroads of Germanic and Latin cultures.
With successful steel, finance and high technology industries, a strategic location at the heart of Western Europe, more natural beauty than you might expect given its size, and as one of the top three richest countries in the world, Luxembourg enjoys a very high standard of living and has prices to match!
Luxembourg can be divided into the following five regions, each with its own characteristics:
|Central Luxembourg (Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg and Mersch)|
The heart of the country, with Luxembourg City as its main attraction, Colmar-Berg a secondary.
|Land of the Red Rocks (Differdange, Dudelange and Esch-sur-Alzette)|
Industrial region with museums and other attractions focussing around this. The region is still used for mining, though to a lesser extent. Many of the former railways servicing the mines have been turned into heritage lines.
|Éislek (Diekirch, Ettelbruck and Vianden)|
Forested area in the Ardennes with a common history in both world wars (Battle of the Bulge). Many historical and war museums throughout the region. The region's terrain is suitable for hikes and off-road cycling.
|Moselle Valley (Grevenmacher, Mondorf-les-Bains and Schengen)|
The wine region of Luxembourg, most towns are located along the Moselle river, meaning they rub shoulders with Germany.
|Mullerthal (Beaufort, Consdorf and Echternach)|
Like the Ardennes, this region is filled with forested and hilly terrain, enticing visitors to hike or cycle off-road. The region is often referred to as Luxembourg's Little Switzerland due to the similarities in topography.
- 1 Luxembourg City. Capital of the Grand Duchy, divided by two deep river valleys
- 2 Clervaux. Small castle town home to the Family of Man photo exposition
- 3 Diekirch. Town known for its World War II history
- 4 Echternach. Small town known for the basilica containing the crypt of Saint Willibrord
- 5 Ettelbruck. Transport hub for northern Luxembourg
- 6 Esch-sur-Alzette. Former mining town now home to the country's university, Luxembourg's second city
- 7 Mondorf-les-Bains. Spa town with casino located on the Luxembourg-France border
- 8 Vianden. Quaint small town presided over by a rather splendid château
|Population||645.3 thousand (2022)|
|Electricity||230 volt / 50 hertz (Europlug, Schuko)|
|Emergencies||112, 113 (police)|
|edit on Wikidata|
The city of Luxembourg proper was founded in 963, and its strategic position soon promised it a great future. Luxembourg was at the crossroads of Western Europe and became heavily fortified. You can still see the extensive city walls and towers which form its distinctive cityscape. Due to its key position, Luxembourg became a Duchy that once included a much larger territory stretching into present-day Belgium, Netherlands, Germany and France. The powerful Habsburg family kept its hand on it until the late Renaissance times.
After the Napoleonic wars, the Duchy of Luxembourg was granted to the Netherlands. It had a special status as a member of the German confederacy and the citadel was armed with a Prussian garrison. Luxembourg was still a strategic location that everybody sought to control. It was granted the title "Grand Duchy" in 1815 but lost some territories to France and Germany.
During the course of the 19th century, developments in warfare and the appearance of artillery made Luxembourg obsolete as a stronghold, and it became little more than a rural territory of no strategic interest. The Germans relinquished their rights over it and moved out their garrison, its western half was granted to Belgium in 1839, and the Netherlands granted it complete independence in 1867. Since then, Luxembourg has developed from a poor country of fields and farms into a modern economy relying on financial services and high-tech industries.
Overrun by Germany in both world wars, Luxembourg was one of the major battlefields of the Battle of the Bulge in the winter of 1944-1945, a story well documented in the museum at Diekirch. The state ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and it joined NATO the following year. Cooperation among the Benelux countries had already existed after the First World War, but this time it proved to be a lot more important on a European scale. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and, in 1999, it joined the euro currency area. As most Luxembourgers are fluent in (at least) two languages (French and Luxembourgish/German), and the small country seems non-threatening to most of the EU, Luxembourgers have risen to high ranks in the EU administration. The most notable is Jean Claude Juncker, the president of the EU commission since 2014.
Luxembourg's official national motto is called Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn, meaning "We want to remain what we are". It refers to the nation's ownership by foreign powers and its wish to remain as an independent state today and in the future.
In Jan 2020, it had an estimated population of 626,000.
Luxembourg enjoys a temperate oceanic climate, with the hills of the Ardennes providing some extra protection against the influences of the Atlantic. The best, or at least the sunniest time to go is May to August, although with a bit of luck you'll enjoy mild weather in April and September too. The warm months of July-August are high-season in the country, with outdoor festivals all around, but Spring comes with many flowers and Autumn comes with wine-making opportunities in the Moselle valley area.
Despite the small size of the country, there are measurable differences in overall temperature, with the north being generally a few degrees colder and receiving serious packs of snow in winter. Although comparatively mild for this part of Europe, winters are on the cold side for travels, with average temperatures around +2°C in January and occasional low points of -15°C at night. July and August are the warmest months, with average temperatures between 15°C and 25°C, and usually a few days over 30°C. Annual precipitation is around 780mm, with highs in August and December.
Mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the south.
- National holiday: National Day falls on 23 June. (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte moved by 6 months to coincide with the warmer weather)
Luxembourgish is close to German and forms a dialect continuum with the German dialects across the border, but it is not fully mutually intelligible with more faraway German dialects. In informal contexts and when wishing to stress "Luxembourgishness", Luxembourgish has been gaining ground since the German occupations during the world wars. Young Luxembourgers increasingly use Luxembourgish when texting or speaking among friends. Written media tends towards standard German or French but the comment sections are often full of Luxembourgish and audiovisual media frequently make use of Luxembourgish at all levels of formality.
German is universally understood, is used in the court system and is taught in schools, and is the predominant language in the areas of Diekirch and Echternach.
French is commonly used throughout the country and can be found on road signs to menus to information in stores. It's probably the most useful foreign language to know if you want to converse with most people in Luxembourg.
English is almost universally understood and is the most popular foreign language in the country. Educated Luxembourgers are fluent in all four of the above languages; it is the "frontaliers" (workers who live across one of the borders) who may not speak English well or at all. Local media frequently use French, Luxembourgish, and German interchangeably without subtitles or voice-over translation, especially when doing street interviews.
Luxembourg is also home to a strong and vibrant Portuguese population (nearly 100,000 reside there), so knowing Portuguese, while not a prerequisite, can be a plus. A few media outlets also publish local news in Portuguese.
Luxembourgers are the polyglots of Europe, rivaling the Swiss.
Minimum validity of travel documents
Luxembourg is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
- There are normally no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. This includes most of the European Union and a few other countries.
- There are usually identity checks before boarding international flights or boats. Sometimes there are temporary border controls at land borders.
- A visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.
- Please see Travelling around the Schengen Area for more information on how the scheme works, which countries are members and what the requirements are for your nationality.
If you're from a country or territory that does not require a visa for the Schengen Area - except for Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Mauritius, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Seychelles - you are permitted to work in Luxembourg without having to obtain any authorisation during the period of the 90 day visa-free stay. However, this visa exemption does not necessarily extend to other Schengen countries.
- 1 Luxembourg Findel Airport (LUX IATA) (6 km (3.7 mi) outside Luxembourg-City). This airport is connected by Luxair, the national airline, and other carriers from many European destinations. A full timetable is available on the website of the airport. Visitors from airports not directly served can connect to Luxembourg at the hubs in Amsterdam Schiphol (served by KLM), Paris Charles de Gaulle (served by Air France and Luxair), Frankfurt Airport (served by Lufthansa), and London Heathrow (served by British Airways). International flights to Luxembourg with a change in a hub airport are often not much more expensive or even cheaper than flights to the hub itself.
- Frankfurt-Hahn (HHN IATA), in the German countryside about halfway between Frankfurt and Luxembourg, is about two hours away by direct Flibco bus. This airport is mainly served by low-cost carriers such as Ryanair.
- Brussels-South Charleroi (CRL IATA), in Charleroi (about 50 km south of Brussels) is about three hours away by direct Flibco bus. This airport is also mainly served by low-cost carriers.
- Frankfurt Airport (FRA IATA) is a bit further afield. The DeLux-Express and Flibco bus services connect the airport with Luxembourg city.
- 2 Luxembourg train station. This station opened in 1859 can be reached directly from Paris (2 hours), Metz (1 hour), Brussels (3 hours) and Trier (43 min). Both international and national timetables can be found on the website of the national railways company CFL. Trains from Paris need to be booked in advance at SNCF's website, and have discounts for advanced bookings. Trains from Metz, Brussels, Trier, and other local destinations have neither advance discounts nor the possibility of reserving seats, so there is no advantage of booking these trains in advance. When travelling from Trier it is advisable to buy a TagesTicket DeLux, a day-ticket which costs €8.40 and is valid for a return trip to Luxembourg and free use of buses and trains within both Luxembourg and the Trier area.
CFL operate a minibus shuttle between Luxembourg train station and TGV Lorraine where passengers can catch TGV connections to Charles de Gaulle Airport, Disneyland Paris, Rennes, Bordeaux and other destinations, and a bus shuttle to Saarbrücken, where passengers can connect to the German ICE network.
If you want to enjoy a nice view on your way to the city, "Grund" and Kasematten, leave the motorway coming from the East (Germany) at exit "Cents". Enter Cents and drive down the hill. Don't let yourself be stopped by signs that the route is blocked via "Grund".
Luxembourg is served by a number of long-distance intercity buses. These include Ouibus, Flixbus, Eurolines, Regiojet and Flibco. In general, these buses are less convenient than trains: they offer less comfort and do not run frequent (often only once per day). However, sometimes they turn out cheaper than trains.
Luxembourg is a compact country, making it easy to reach nearly any town in the country in an hour or less by public transport. The Mobilitéit agency coordinates the country's trains and buses; their website and mobile app are both very useful for planning journeys throughout Luxembourg.
Since 29 February 2020, most public transport in Luxembourg has been free! You only need a ticket for cross-border journeys, or if you wish to travel first class on the train.
The Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (CFL) train network is generally a good way to move across the country. Luxembourg city is the main railway hub, from where lines radiate out in all directions. While the south is reasonably well covered, the north is limited to one main line which runs from Luxembourg City to Liège in Belgium via Mersch, Ettelbruck, Clervaux and Troisvierges. Diekirch has a branch line from Ettelbruck, and Wiltz from Kautenbach. To the south, you can reach Bettembourg and Esch-sur-Alzette. To the east, there is a line to Trier in Germany, which crosses over the Moselle River at Wasserbillig.
Trains in Luxembourg are comfortable and modern, and generally run perfectly on-time.
Luxembourg city re-introduced trams in 2017 and there are plans both to extend the line within the city and to build a new fast tram between Luxembourg city and the "second city" of the country Esch sur Alzette.
The country is served by countless bus services, reaching every little village in the country. Most services run at least every hour throughout the week, with higher frequencies during weekdays and reduced operation on Saturdays and Sundays.
Buses numbered 1-31 serve the City of Luxembourg, with the most useful when arriving in the country being line 16 (Airport - Kirchberg - City Centre - Train Station - Howald) and 29 (Airport - City Centre - Train Station - Howald). Almost all city buses stop at the central bus station, Hamilius, and the train station (Luxembourg Gare) in their routes at some point, resulting in very high-frequent connections between these places (once every 1 or 2 minutes).
The bus service out of town is also extensive and reliable. Buses numbered 100 upwards will take you out of the city. For destinations in the north of the country, one usually first needs to take a train to Mersch, Ettelbruck, Wiltz, or Clervaux, and change there to a bus to the final destination. Other destinations usually have a direct bus from the capital.
Buses are modern and clean. Screens and announcements on-board advise of the next stop on most bus services. It is important to hail the bus you wish to catch by raising your hand towards the road as it arrives.
Luxembourg's road infrastructure is well-developed. Anywhere that happens to lie along the major motorways is easily accessible via these (including Grevenmacher in the east, Mamer to the west, Bettembourg to the south and Mersch and Ettelbruck in the north). Esch-sur-Alzette, the country's second city (more like a small town by international standards) also has its own motorway link.
Unless otherwise indicated, speed limits are 50 km/h in towns and villages, 90 km/h outside built-up areas, and 130 km/h on the motorway (110 km/h in the rain). Mind the yellow town/villagge shields which indicate when you enter or leave a town or village. Speed limits are raised by signs to 110 km/h in some places on the N7 and N11, and lowered to 70 km/h on some open country roads. Within towns and villages, speed limits can be raised to 70 km/h on main roads, or lowered to 30 km/h in residential areas. Speed limits are enforced by random police checks as well as fixed speed cams. Be aware that if you have a right-hand-drive car then you are very likely to be singled out for a customs check on the way in. Police are also very keen on stopping drivers for having the 'wrong' lights on in town, i.e. side lights instead of dipped headlights.
Driving in Luxembourg is nowhere as testing as in some other European countries. The locals are generally polite. When entering the highways from side roads into the slower traffic lane, the other drivers will allow you to join the traffic line, but traffic indicators are essential. As with other highways in Europe always keep in the slow traffic lane, keeping the fast lane for overtaking. Some drivers travel at high speeds and will flash their headlights to indicate that they are in a hurry, even if you are sitting on the speed limit. Most of the time trucks keep in the slow lane at their regulated speed for large vehicles. They can be a little annoying when overtaking other trucks. The truck drivers seem to keep a watch out for other vehicles. Cars towing caravans can be a bit of a menace at times but staying alert will ensure there are no problems. The closing speeds of vehicles need to be watched if overtaking, as some drivers travel well in excess of the speed limits.
Normal day-to-day driving in Luxembourg is a delight but traffic does slow down in peak times.
Finding parking in Luxembourg city centre on weekends can be difficult. Most spaces are quickly taken and some parking garages close early. The best option is to find somewhere near the station and then walk around the city centre.
Parking is paid within the entire city (including all residential districts). Traffic wardens are numerous and vigilant.
The streets and landscape in Luxembourg make for good cycling territory; highly recommended.
You may not expect it from one of the smallest countries in Europe, but The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a diverse land, full of beautiful nature and gorgeous historic monuments. Its turbulent history is filled with stories of emperors and counts as well as many battles and disputes. Today, the almost fairy-tale like castles and fortresses are a faint but impressive reminder of those days, and amidst their lovely natural setting, they make some superb and picturesque sights.
Most of the country's population lives in rural areas and apart from the delightful historic City of Luxembourg, the country's capital, settlements are mostly small. That said, the capital is a place not to be missed. It has a splendid location high on a cliff, overlooking the deep and narrow valleys of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers. Several parts of the old town are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and the most interesting places include the Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame, the town fortifications, and of course the Grand Ducal Palace, which is surrounded by charming cobblestoned lanes. However, there's far more to see, such as the Bock casemates, Neumünster Abbey and the Place d'Armes. There are several World War II memorial sites and a number of high-end museums, but just wandering through the old centre, taking in the beautiful views from the Chemin de la Corniche and crossing bridges to the nearest plateaus is at least as great a way to discover the city.
The lively town of Echternach is the oldest city in Luxembourg. It boasts the country's most prominent religious structure, the basilica of the Abbey of Echternach where the country's patron St Willibrord is buried. The annual Whit Tuesday celebrations in his honour involve lots of dancers in the old town centre and are a popular tourist attraction. Apart from its own sights, Echternach makes a great base to explore the beautiful Müllerthal, better known as "Little Switzerland". Hike or bike through its dense forests with myriad streams and even some caves.
The romantic village of Vianden with its stunning medieval castle is a tourists' favourite and well worth a visit even despite the crowds in summer. The beautiful location of the fortress in the Our river valley, surrounded by tight forests and a lake with swans, gives it a typical fairy-tale castle look and feel. If you're done wandering the streets and exploring the Gothic churches and fortified towers of this charming town, visit the Victor Hugo house. Afterwards, the pleasant cafés of the Grand Rue are a perfect place to kick back and enjoy.
Head to Remich to start your own trip down the Route du Vin and discover the many fine wines that are produced here, in the Moselle Valley.
Luxembourg has many excellent well-marked outdoor trails. Their location and GPS tracks can be found at Géoportail.lu
The Fédération Luxembourgeoise de Teqball has a list of public places for playing teqball, a sport invented in the 2010s by three Hungarians, that is a combination of table tennis and football (or soccer) played with a special curved table.
Exchange rates for euros
As of September 2022:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
Luxembourg uses the euro, like several other European countries. One euro is divided into 100 cents. The official symbol for the euro is €, and its ISO code is EUR. There is no official symbol for the cent.
All banknotes and coins of this common currency are legal tender within all the countries, except that low-denomination coins (one and two cent) are phased out in some of them. The banknotes look the same across countries, while coins have a standard common design on the reverse, expressing the value, and a national country-specific design on the obverse. The obverse is also used for different designs of commemorative coins. The design of the obverse does not affect the use of the coin.
If you know any coin collectors, take a few local coins as keepsakes, since Luxembourg coins are among the rarest of the euros — even in Luxembourg, most of your change will be in other countries' coins!
The general price level in Luxembourg is noticeably higher than in France and Germany, especially in central Luxembourg. Even cheap hotels tend to cost over €100 a night and you won't get much change from €20 after a modest dinner and a drink. To save some money, basing yourself in Trier (or other cities across the border) and daytripping to Luxembourg might be an option.
On the upside, cigarettes, alcohol and petrol are comparatively cheap, making the small state a popular destination for long-haul drivers.
Traditional dishes are largely based on pork and potatoes and the influence of German cooking is undeniable. The unofficial national dish is judd mat gaardebounen, or smoked neck of pork served with boiled broad beans. A must to try if you do get the opportunity are gromperekichelchen (literally, potato biscuits) which are a type of fried shredded potato cake containing onions, shallots and parsley. Typically found served at outdoor events such as markets or funfairs they are absolutely delicious and a particularly nice snack on a cold winter's day.
In most restaurants, however, the typical local food would be French cuisine coming in bigger portions. Italian food has been popular since the 1960s. Home cooking has been greatly influenced by the recipes of Ketty Thull, apparently the best-selling cooking and baking book in Luxembourg since WWII.
You can also taste the "Bamkuch" (literally tree cake), which is eaten mainly during celebrations such as weddings and baptisms. This cake is traditionally made on a spit and presented as a tree trunk composed of several layers, visible when it is cut, and that represent the tree rings.
The Luxembourg white wines from the Moselle valley to the east of Luxembourg include Riesling, Auxerrois, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Rivaner and Elbling, and are good. In autumn, many villages along the Moselle river organise wine-tasting village festivals.
Young people tend to drink local or imported beer. Luxembourg has a number of breweries, with Diekirch, from the town of the same name, Bofferding, Battin, Simon and Mousel being the most popular. Despite the fact that you would be hard pushed to find any of these outside of the country, all are excellent lagers.
As an after dinner digestive, Luxembourgers like to drink an eau-de-vie. The most commonly available are Mirabelle and Quetsch. Both are made from plums and are extremely strong! Sometimes these are taken in coffee which may be a little more palatable for some.
Due to the heavy banking and EU presence in the city, hotels in central Luxembourg are quite expensive, although there is a good youth hostel (see Luxembourg (city)#Sleep). It may be more cost-effective to stay across the border in Trier, for example, and "commute" into Luxembourg.
The Association of Independent Hotels in Luxembourg operates a booking service at hotels.lu  for a number of smaller hotels, mostly in the countryside, but a few in the city.
Luxembourg is a major player in the financial service sector. Many thousands of people commute from neighbouring Belgium, France (Les frontaliers) and Germany (Die Grenzgänger) on weekdays, considerably swelling the population of the capital city. The majority work in the numerous financial institutions based in and around the capital (particularly in the Kirchberg district) and are drawn across the borders by the excellent salaries on offer. Luxembourg City has a very international flavour as in addition to les frontaliers, it attracts young professionals from all over the globe. In this area, business is done predominantly in English, French or German and it is necessary to be fluent in one of these at a minimum, although many jobs will demand proficiency in at least two.
In many surveys, Luxembourg has been named "safest country in the world". If you follow usual precautions, you should be fine, however, there are some hints that you might want to consider while staying in Luxembourg.
Dodgy areas and crimeEdit
While most of the hereafter mentioned areas are perfectly safe in broad daylight, there are some areas that are sketchier under certain circumstances, for example late at night or if travelling alone.
In the bigger towns and settlements, crime tends to concentrate at and in the streets around railway stations, particularly harassment, pickpocketing or drug offences. In the south, this is especially the case in Luxembourg city, and in the urban areas in the canton Esch/Alzette. In the northern parts of the country, railway stations are mostly located in smaller villages and towns, and are therefore mostly safe at any time of the day, with the exception perhaps of Ettelbruck.
In Luxembourg City, crime tends to concentrate at nighttime around the central railway station (Quartier Gare), and in Bonnevoie. The most common offences are harassment, pickpocketing or drug offences, with sporadic muggings happening.
Note that since 2020 there has been a series of cases of necklace- and watch-snatching. Avoid therefore to wear flashy or expensive looking jewellery in the mentioned areas.
The urban areas of the Minette region have a reputation for being sketchier at night. Follow usual precautions around railway stations.
Outside of the bigger towns and railway hubs, the rural areas and villages, such as in the north, west and east of the country, are very safe at any time of the day. Violent crime is virtually nonexistent.
Enjoying the nature of Luxembourg is a pleasant way to relax, if you keep basic precautions in mind.
While hiking, it is advised to stay on marked paths if you are unfamiliar with the terrain. In the Ardennes, and especially in the Müllerthal region, it is not uncommon to encounter steep cliffs with drops of up to 30m in the middle of the forest, sometimes only steps away from the hiking paths without being imminently visible. Another problem in these regions might be slippery rocks, especially after rainfall.
To reduce these risks when hiking in the Ardennes and Müllerthal, leave the flipflops at home and make sure to have appropriate footwear. Several tourists are injured each year because of unprepared expeditions in these regions, with some cases even having resulted in death.
Flora and faunaEdit
The greatest danger you will encounter while out in nature are ticks and the diseases they transmit, most notably the lyme disease, with infection rates being as high as 20% in some areas of Luxembourg. Before setting off into nature, make sure to inform yourself on how to protect yourself, how to remove ticks from your skin and how to recognize a lyme disease infection in the period after you have been bitten.
The food and tap water supply in Luxembourg is perfectly fine and the country's healthcare system is first class. The climate is average even though the summers can get hot. However these temperatures rarely rise much above 30°C.
Try to show respect for the local language and make some effort to say a word or two of it even if just the standard greeting "Moien". Avoid calling "Luxembourgish" a dialect of German or think that the country is merely an extension of France or Germany. The locals, especially those in the small towns and villages, are very friendly; saying "Hello" to them in any language will be returned with a smile.
Unusual for a country in Western Europe, Luxembourgers place a high emphasis on family values. It's not uncommon for people in small towns and villages to know each other on a personal level, and parents are intimately involved in the life choices of their children.
Luxembourgers, like many people living in Europe, are direct communicators, but they are tactful and diplomatic with their choice of words. This said, being overly blunt or opinionated is considered rude. Subtlety is more valued than being direct.
The pace of life in Luxembourg is much slower compared to other countries in Europe. Building relationships and getting things done require you to demonstrate sincere interest as Luxembourgers try to do things in a measured, careful manner. Showing impatience, anger, or displays of emotion at this will not be welcomed.
As with many countries in Europe, inquiring about someone's salary or talking about your own is uncommon and in conversation is a great way to make someone feel uncomfortable. Similarly, discussing personal, political, or religious convictions are no-go areas until you're better acquainted with someone.
Luxembourg is an egalitarian society. Bragging about your accomplishments is seen as a sign of weakness.
While it's debated whether or not Luxembourgish is a variety of another language, many Luxembourgers proudly consider it to be a language in its own right and will be offended if you insinuate something otherwise.
The Grand Duke and his family are venerated in Luxembourgish society. Insulting and/or criticising them will seriously offend many Luxembourgers.