- Southern Nueva Vizcaya — A largely rural and remote area bordering Central Luzon, dominated by the Caraballo mountain range. It is composed of the small towns of Alfonso Castañeda, Aritao, Bambang, Dupax del Norte, Dupax del Sur, Kayapa, and Santa Fe, and two nature reserves, Casecnan Protected Landscape and Salinas Natural Monument.
The province's name derives from the Spanish province of Vizcaya ("Biscay"). During the early Spanish colonial era, Nueva Vizcaya used to be a part of a larger Cagayan province, along with Isabela — named after Queen Isabella II of Spain. When Nueva Vizcaya was created in 1839 through the advice of the alcalde mayor of Cagayan, it included the present area occupied by the province plus present-day Mountain Province, Quirino, Aurora, and much of Isabela today.
Nueva Vizcaya is mountainous, full of steep mountain ranges, rolling hills, and valleys and plains between them. Mountain ranges form the provincial boundaries: the Caraballo Mountains to the south, the Luzon Cordillera to the north and west, and the Sierra Madre to the east. The Caraballo range has Dalton Pass, which carries Asian Highway 26 between Cagayan Valley and Central Luzon.
Nueva Vizcaya has a population of 452,000 (2015 census figures) and is sparsely populated. The Novo Vizcayanos — as the residents call themselves — are largely ethnically Igorot, coming from tribes like the Ifugao, the Isinai, the Dumagat, the Kalanguya and the Bugkalot, and these indigenous peoples hold ancestral land claims for most of the province. The remainder of the population are Ilocano settlers, brought to Nueva Vizcaya during Spanish times to work in tobacco plantations and help with construction of Catholic missions to evangelize and pacify the Igorot. Therefore, Nueva Vizcaya is culturally closer to the Cordilleras than to Cagayan Valley, and many Novo Vizcayanos support the inclusion of their province into the Cordillera region.
The primary language spoken in Nueva Vizcaya is Ilocano, brought by settlers, but is not native to the region. Most Novo Vizcayanos speak indigenous Igorot languages like Isinai, Bugkalot (or Ilongot), and Ifugao, but they switch to Ilocano, Tagalog or English when dealing with visitors.
All the towns along the Maharlika Highway are served by buses from Manila to destinations such as Banaue, Kalinga, and Tuguegarao further north. Victory Liner provides much of the services that travel Maharlika Highway all the way through the province, while Ohayami Transport plies the Manila-Banaue route. Most buses have a food stop on Dalton Pass, and another major stopover at Solano.
From the Cordilleras, Benguet-Nueva Vizcaya Road (Route 110) provides a scenic route from Baguio, while Nueva Vizcaya-Ifugao-Mountain Province Road (Route 109) is a north-south route that serves Banaue and Bontoc
The town of Alfonso Castañeda is only reachable through a road from Pantabangan in Nueva Ecija to Baler in Aurora.
- Mt. Palali stands at 1,705 m asl. The municipalities of Quezon and Bayombong bound Mt. Palali. Once the hunting ground of the Bugkalots, Gaddangs and the Ifugaos, the mountain offers a magnificent view of the low-lying municipalities of Nueva Vizcaya. Its diptherocarp forest contains unique diversity of flora and fauna and is a crash site of a World War II tora-tora plane.
- Ambaguio Town is the gateway to Mount Pulag, the second highest in the country at 2,922 m above sea level. Guided tours offer treks along hanging bridges, climbing through mossy forest and remote farming barangays with friendly Kalanguya tribe. Walk through an area of bonsai forest and grasslands of dwarf bamboos over a horizon of clouds. Mt. Pulag is a perfect eco-tourism destination and is home to the pitcher plant, giant cloud rat and whiskered pitta. Ambaguio is 20 km from Bayombong and is home to four indigenous tribes namely Kalanguya, Ibaloy, Kankanaey and Karao. For trips and arrangements contact the Municipal Tourism Council.
- People's Museum and Library in Bayombong stands beside the St. Dominic Cathedral. A two-storey historical building which houses the Novo Vizcayano’s history and heritage. The former seat of the provincial government now showcases the culture and tradition of the tribes of Nueva Vizcaya.
- Paraiso Tribu Vizcayano (also known as Lower Magat Ecotourism Park) is being develop by the Province of Nueva Vizcaya as a high-end back-to-nature resort facility showcasing the rich culture and natural attractions of the province.
- Rizal Shrine in Brgy. Casat, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya is one of the tallest statues of José Rizal.
- Bangan Hill National Park - A historic landmark and cultural treasure. It is the site of the annual "Stations of the Cross" staged by the local Catholic church during the Lenten season using live actors depicting the last moments leading to Jesus Christ's crucifixion. Also great for hiking enthusiasts.
- PLT Wellness and Resort in Brgy. Bascaran, Solano. Known for the longest zip line and biggest swimming pool not only in the province but also in the Cagayan Valley region.
- Salinas Natural Monument
- Casecnan Protected Landscape
- There are several waterfalls in the province which include Mapalyao Falls and Señora Falls both found in Quezon; Uddiawan Falls in Solano; and Edralin Falls in Kasibu.
This landlocked province is famous for its high quality citrus fruits. Unsurprisingly, this has given it the nickname of “Citrus Capital of the Philippines.”